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APII Lymphatic


The lymphatic system returns ___ ___ back to the bloodstream. interstitial fluid
The lymphatic system maintains blood ___ ___. volume levels
The lymphatic system transports ___ and ___-___ ___ into the bloodstream through lacteals. lipids, lipid-soluble vitamins
The lymphatic system aids in ___ and ___ of lymphocytes. production, maturation
The lymphatic system generates an immune response against antigens in the ___ ___. interstitial fluid
Name the 8 parts of the lymph vessel network from smallest to largest components: 1) lymph 2) lymphatic capillaries 3) lymphatic vessels 4) lymphatic trunks 5) lymphatic ducts 6) lymphatic cells 7) lymphatic nodules 8) lymphatic organs
Lymph is comprised of: ___ ___, ___, and ___ ___. interstitial fluid, solutes, foreign materials
Lymphatic capillaries are closed-ended tubes found interspersed among most blood ___ ___ (except bone marrow and ___). capillary beds, CNS
Lymphatic capillaries resemble blood capillaries (endothelium) but they are ___ in diameter, have no ___ ___ and have overlapping endothelial cells that act as one-way valves allowing _____ _____ a one-way entrance into lymphatic capillaries. larger, basement membrane, interstitial fluid
The gastrointestinal tract contains specialized lymph capillaries called ___ that collect not only interstitial fluid, but also ___ and ___-___ _____. lacteals, lipids, lipid-soluble vitamins
The lymph collected from the gastrointestinal system has a milky color due to ___ absorption and is called ___. lipid, chyle
Lymphatic capillaries merge to form ___ ___. lymphatic vessels
___ ___ resemble venules, in that they have components of all three vascular tunics and possess valves similar to veins. Lymphatic vessels
___ lymphatic vessels bring lymph IN to a lymph node. Afferent
___ lymphatic vessels transport filtered lymph OUT and away from the lymph node. Efferent
Lymph is continuously examined for ___. antigens
functions of the lymphatic system, return interstitial fluid back to bloodstream, maintain ___ ___, transport ___ through lacteals, production of____, generate an immune response blood volume, lipids, lymphocytes
Lymph is comprised of ___ ___, ___, ___ ___ interstitial fluid, solutes, foreign materials
Lymphatic capillaries are ___ ___ tubes that are found interspersed among most blood capillary beds (except in ___ and ___). closed-ended, bone marrow and CNS
Lymphatic capillaries resemble blood capillaries how ___. endothelium
Lymphatic capillaries are ___ in diameter, ___ basement membrane and have overlapping ___ ___ that act as one-way valves allowing interstitial fluid a one-way entrance. larger, no, endothelial cells
The GI tract contains specialized lymph capillaries called ___ that collect interstitial fluid, lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins. lacteals
The lymph collected from the GI system has a milky color due to the lipid absorption and is called ___. chyle
Lymphatic capillaries merge to form ___ ___. lymphatic vessels
___ lymphatic vessels bring lymph to a lymph node. Afferent
___ lymphatic vessels transport filtered lymph away from the lymph node. Efferent
Lymph is continuously examined for ___. antigens
Left and right lymphatic trunks form from merging ___ ___. lymphatic vessels
Jugular lymphatic trunks drain head and neck
Subclavian lymphatic trunks drain upper limbs, breasts and superficial thoracic wall
Bronchiomediastinal lymphatic trunks drain deep thoracic structures
Lumbar lymphatic trunks drain the ___ limbs, ___ wall and the ___ organs. lower, abdominopelvic, pelvic
Lymphatic ducts are formed from the fusion of ___ ___. lymphatic trunks
The right lymphatic duct is located deep to the ___ ___ and returns lymph at the junction of the right subclavian and ___ ___ veins. right clavicle, internal jugular
The right lymphatic duct returns lymph from the right side of the head and neck, right upper limb and the right side of the thorax
The thoracic duct is the ___ lymphatic vessel. largest
thoracic duct begins just inferior to the as a rounded saclike structure called the ___ ___. diaphragm, cisterna chyli
The thoracic duct collects lymph from most of the body excluding the right ___ ___ drainage. lymphatic duct
The thoracic duct passes through the ___ ___of the diaphragm and returns lymph into the junction between the ___ ___ and internal jugular veins. aortic opening, left subclavian
4 types of lymphatic cells macrophages, nurse cells, dendritic cells, lymphocytes
Monocytes that have migrated to the lymphatic system. macrophages
Special epithelial cells in thymus that secrete thymic hormones. nurse cells
Main antigen-presenting cell in the immune system. dendritic cells
Most abundant lymphatic cells. lymphocytes
Name the 3 types of lymphocytes T-cells, B-cells, Natural killer
All lymphocytes migrate through the lymphatic system and search for the presence of ___. antigens
T-Lymphocytes make up about ____ to ____ % of body lymphocytes 70–85
T-Lymphocytes express a ___ ___ ___ that can recognize a particular antigen plasma membrane coreceptor
2 types of T-lymphocytes helper T-lymphocytes, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes
Helper T-Lymphocytes primarily contain the ___ coreceptor CD4
___ ___ are referred to as CD4+ cells or T4 cells Helper T-Lymphocytes
There are many types of T4 cells, each one responds to a different ___. antigen
Who presents antigens to other lymphocytes and secretes cytokines? T4 cells
cytokines are ___ that activate other lymphatic cells hormones
Also called CD8+ cells or T8 cells Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes
Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes contain the CD___ coreceptor 8
___ T-Lymphocytes come in direct contact with infected or foreign cells and kill them. Cytotoxic
Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes act only after activated by a ___ ___ that presents an antigen to it helper T-lymphocyte
B-Lymphocytes make up about ___% of body lymphocytes 15–30
B-Lymphocytes contain antigen receptors to only one type of antigen and produce ___ or ___ to that single antigen immunoglobulins, antibodies
B-lymphocytes become activated when presented with an antigen from a ___ ___ helper T-lymphocyte
Most of the activated B-lymphocytes become ___ ___ that produce and secrete large amounts of ___ plasma cells, antibodies
The long-lived B-lymphocytes are called ___ ___ and confer years or lifetime immunity to certain antigens. memory B-lymphocytes
AIDS is a life-threatening disease that results from infection by the ___ ___ virus. human immunodeficiency
HIV targets ___ ___ the loss of these cells gives rises to AIDS. helper T-lymphocytes
Tetanus is a severe illness that causes painful ___ ___ and convulsions and can lead to death. muscle spasms
NK (Natural Killer) cells are also called ___ ___ lymphocytes large granular
NK cells are a relatively ___ percentage of all lymphocytes small
NK cells tend to express the ___ receptors CD16
___ cells can kill a wide variety of infected cells and some cancerous cells NK
Lymphopoiesis is the process of ___ development. lymphocyte
The final result of lymphopoiesis is that the lymphocyte becomes ___, meaning the cell can participate in the immune response. immunocompetent
All lymphocytes originate in the ___ ___ ___ but their maturation sites differ. red bone marrow
___ ___ are oval clusters of lymphatic cells with some extracellular matrix but not surrounded by a connective tissue capsule Lymphatic nodules
Center of the lymphatic nodule is called the ___ ___ that contains proliferating B-lymphocytes and macrophages germinal center
Lymphatic nodules ___ and ___ antigens filter, attack
MALT stands for.... Mucosa-Associated Lymphatic Tissue
Lymphatic nodules are located in the mucosa of the ___, ___, ___, ___ tracts. Lymphatic nodules ___ and ___ to antigens that may enter these tracts GI, respiratory, genital, urinary, monitor, respond
MALT is very prominent in the ileum; these nodules are called ____ ____ Peyer patches
Name the 3 types of tonsils pharyngeal, palatine, lingual
Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) located in the posterosuperior wall of the ___. nasopharynx
Palatine tonsils—located in the posterolateral wall of the ___ cavity. oral
Lingual tonsils—located along the posterior one-third of the ___ tongue
___ ___ consists of lymphatic cells and extracellular matrix and is completely surrounded by a connective tissue capsule lymphatic organs
4 main lymphatic organs are the ___, ___ ___, ___ and ___. thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, thyroid
Bilobed organ located superficial to the heart. ___ thymus
Thymus consists of ___ fused thymic lobes, which are divided into lobules two
Each lobule of the thymus has an outer ___ and an inner ___ cortex, medulla
Thymus continues to grow until _____ and then begins to regress in size and function and, in adults, it becomes replaced mostly by ____ _____ tissue. puberty, adipose connective
The function of the thymus is the site of ___ and ___ of T-lymphocytes. differentiation, maturation
The thymus outer cortex contains immature ___ T-lymphocytes
Thymus inner medulla contains mature ___ T-lymphocytes
In adulthood, T-lymphocytes can only be produced by ___ ___ and not by the maturation of new cells in the thymus cell division
Nurse cells in thymus secrete ___ ___ that helps maturation of lymphocytes. thymic hormone
Lymphocytes inside thymus are protected from antigens by the ___ -___ ___. blood-thymus barrier
Small, round or oval structures located along the pathway of lymph vessels are: ___ ___ lymph nodes
Lymph nodes are typically found in clusters ranging from ___ - ___ mm in diameter 1-25
The primary function of a lymph node is to filter ___ from the lymph and initiate an ___ ___ antigens, immune response
3 Most apparent lymph node clusters occur as ___, ___ and ___ nodes. axillary, inguinal, cervical
Lymph Nodes are surrounded by a tough ___ ___ capsule connective tissue
Internal extensions of the lymph node capsule, ___, project into the node, dividing it into compartments. trabeculae
Lymphatic cells surround the trabeculae and lymphatic sinuses provide a pathway for ___ flow. lymph
Lymph node is divided into outer ___ and inner ___ cortex, medulla
The lymph node cortex consists of nodules and sinuses called ___ sinuses. cortical
The lymph node medulla contains medullary ___ and medullary ___ cords, sinuses
Afferent vessels deliver ___ to the node. lymph
Lymph exits nodes via ___ vessels at an indentation of the node called the ___. efferent, hilum
Cancer cells travel easily through the lymph system, called ___ metastasis
Lymph node enlarged by cancer cells is going to be ___ and ___ firm, nontender
Largest lymphatic organ in body just lateral to left kidney spleen
A splenic artery/vein enter/leave the spleen via a ___ or indentation on its medial surface hilum
The ____ is where all the vessels and nerves enter and leave the spleen. hilum
Spleen surrounded by a ____ ____ ____ tissue capsule, which sends extensions called trabeculae into the organ dense irregular connective
Splenic cells around the trabeculae are subdivided into ___ ___ and ____ ____ . white pulp, red pulp
Red pulp surrounds each cluster of ___ ___. white pulp
The white pulp is associated with the arterial supply and consists of ___, ___ and ___ T-cells, B-cells, macrophages
In the center of each cluster of white pulp in the spleen is a ___ ___. central artery
The red pulp in the spleen is associated with the ___ supply venous
Red pulp consists of splenic cords and splenic sinusoids that contain ___, ___, ___ and some ___ cells erythrocytes, platelets, macrophages, plasma
Blood cells can easily enter and leave the blood stream in the spleen because of the discontinuous ___ ___ of the capillaries in the splenic sinusoids. basal lamina
Functions of the spleen, initiates ___ ___ when antigens are found, serves as a reservoir for___ and ___, ___old, defective erythrocytes and platelets immune response, erythrocytes, platelets, phagocytizes
Created by: BrandiLynn



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