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nha exam review

endocardium endothelial layer-inner
myocardium muscle-middle
epicardium fibrous-outer-coronary arteries are found here
carrys o2 blood aorta, arteries, arterioles
carrys deox blood back to heart veunules, veins, sup and inf vena cava
capillaries composed of only a layer of endothelial cells, connects arterioles and venules.
capillary blood mix arterial and venous
avg adult blood 5-6 liters
plasma 55%
plasma contains.... proteins, amino acids, gases, electrolytes, sugars, hormones, minerals, vitamins, h20 and urea (waste)
% of formed elements of blood 45%
where do blood cells originate stem cells in bone marrow
contain hemoglobin erythrocytes
How many RBC? 4.2 - 6.2 million
life span of rbc 120 days
how many WBC? 5,000 - 10,000
leukocytosis increase in WBC's~infection and leukemia
leukopenia decrease in wbc~viral infection or chemo
first wbc on scene neutrophils
most numerous wbc neutrophil
neutrophils~phagocytic engulf or digest bacteria~increase in bacterial
2d most numerous wbc lymphocyte~viral~immunity
largest wbc monocyte
monocyte % 3-8%
monocytes that pass into tissue macrophage to powerfull phagocytes
monocytes # increases in intracellular infectionc and TB
eosinophils % 1-3%
eosinophils active against anti-body foreign molecules
eosinophils increased in.... allergies, skin and parasitic infections
basophil % 0-1%
basophils carry... histamine
thrombocytes are aka... platelets
avg # of platelets 140,000 to 440,000
platelets life span 9-12 days
what are platelets essential for? blood coagulation
hemostasis blood vessels are repaired after injury
4 stages of hemostasis vascular~platelet~coagulation~fibrinolysis
only vein palpated in obese pt? cephalic~2d choice vein~moves
basilic last choice of vein~near the brachial artery
tortous vein winding or crooked veins
vacutainer needle size 1" to 1.5"
butterfly gauge and length 23~1/2 to 3/4"
syringe ML 10 - 20
Hematoma blood accumulates in the tissue around the vein
hemoconcentration increased proportion of formed elements to plasma caused by the tourniquete left on to long.
phlebitis inflammation of the vein
petechiae tiny non raised red spots that appear on the skin from rupturing capillaries (tourniquete left on to long)
thrombus blood clot~insufficient pressure after needle is removed
thrombophlebitis inflammation of a vein with formation of a clot
septicemia systemic infection~presence of pathogenic organism during venipuncture
trauma injury to underlying tissue caused by probing the needle
edema accumulation of fluid in tissues
fistula permanent surgical connection between an artery and a vein. (never use for venipuncture)
timed specimen used to monitor the level of a substance or condition in a pt
two-hour postprandial test used for DM
Oral glucose tolerance test used to diagnose DM
OGTT hours... 0700 - 0900
trough lowest blood level
Blood cultures used to detect m/o in pt's blood
adult lancet range 3.0
infant lancet range 0.85 (do not exceed 2.0)
capillary order of draw lavender~tubes w/other additives, tubes with no additives
most common specimen analyzed? whole blood
liver profile ALP, AST, ALT, GGT, and Bilubrin
coronary risk profile cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL
culture and sensitivity test (C&S) detect and identify m/o and determine the most effective antibiotic
medical asepsis destruction of pathogenic m/o after they leave the body
Created by: bg1282