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Chapter 5 Integument

Integumentary System and its Functions

The integumentary system includes structures that we can see. What are they? Skin, hair, and nails.
What are the structures that we cannot see that are included with the integumentary system? Sweat glands, sensory receptors and subcutaneous tissue.
The integumentary system covers the body and is a barrier between the external and internal? Environment of the body
The skin is made of several different tissue types and is considered a what? An organ
The two major layers of the skin are? The Epidermis and the dermis
Stratified squamous keratinizing epithelial tissue is which layer of the skin? Epidermis
The epidermis is thickest on what parts of the body? Palms of the hands and soles of the feet
The cells of the epidermis that are most abundant are the? Keratinocytes
The innermost layer of the epidermis is the? Stratum germinativum
The outermost layer of the epidermis is the? Stratum corneum
What is another name for stratum germinativum? Stratum basale
To germinate means to what? Sprout or grow
Basal means the what? Base or lowest part
The innermost layer of the epidermis is where what takes place? Mitosis
New cells are continually being produced pushing the older ones toward what? The surface
These new cells are producing what protein? Keratin
As the cells get farther away from the capillaries in the dermis they do what? They die
As the dead cells are worn off the surface they are replaced with cells from where? Lower layers
Receptors for the sense of touch are called? Merkel cells
What is another name for merkel cells? Merkel discs
Keratinocytes synthesize antimicrobial peptides called what? Defensins
Defensins and other chemicals are produced following a what? Injury to the skin
Cholesterol when exposed to UV light is changed to what vitamin? Vitamin D
What is the best way to get Vitamin D? Through sunlight exposure
Vitamin D is important for the absorption of what? Calcium and Phosphorus
Calcium and phosphorus is absorbed through what area of the body? From food through the small intestine
The outermost layer that consists of many layers of dead cells is called? Stratum corneum
What protein is left in the dead cells in the stratum corneum? Keratin
What layer of the skin is a barrier to pathogens and chemicals? Stratum corneum
The flaking of dead cells from the skin surface helps remove what? Microorganisms
The fatty acids in what help inhibit the growth of microorganisms? Sebum
When layers of the epidermis or epidermis and dermis are separated and tissue fluid collects what is this called? A blister
When the rate of mitosis in the stratum germinativum increases and creates a thicker epidermis what is this called? A callus
Where are calluses more commonly found? Palms and Soles of feet
The cells that originate in the red bone marrow and are quite mobile are called? Langerhans cells
What is another name for Langerhans cells? Dendritic cells
Langerhans cells migrate pathogens to lymph nodes and present the pathogen to what for destruction? Lymphocytes
The production of antibodies is called what? An immune response
Antibodies are proteins that label foreign material for what? Destruction
The skin an important component of the body's what? Protective responses
A cell found in the lower epidermis is called? Melanocytes
The melanocytes produce a pigment called what? Melanin
Melanin production is increased by exposure of the skin to what? Ultraviolet rays
Ultraviolet rays are damaging to what type of cells? Living cells
As melanin is produced it is taken in by what type of cells? Epidermal cells
Light skin does not have a natural what to UV light? Barrier
Melanin also gives color to what? The hair on the head and two parts of the eye
The what is made up of an irregular type of fibrous connective tissue? Dermis
Irregular fibrous connective tissue means that the fibers are not? Parallel, but run in all directions
Fibroblasts produce what? collagen and elastin fibers
Collagen fibers are? Strong
Elastin fibers are? Able to recoil after being stretched
Strength and elasticity are two characteristics of the? Dermis
The uneven junction of the dermis with the epidermis is called the what? Papillary layer
What are abundant in the papillary layer to nourish the dermis and stratum germinativum? Capillaries
Because the epidermis has no capillaries those cells depend on the blood supply from the dermis for what? Oxygen and nutrients
Within the dermis are the accessory skin structures what are these? The hair and nail follicles, sensory receptors and several types of glands
Hair follicles are made of what type of tissue? Epidermal tissue
What is at the base of the hair follicle? Hair root
The hair root contains what cells? Matrix
In the matrix of the hair is where what takes place? Mitosis
New cells of the hair produce what protein? Keratin
The hair gets its color from what? Melanin
When the cells of the hair die they become part of what? The hair shaft
Eyelashes and Eyebrows help to keep what out? Dust and sweat
The hair on the head provides what from the cold? Insulation
Attached to each hair follicle on the body is a small smooth muscle called a? Pilomotor
Another name for the Pilomotor muscle is Arrector Pili muscle
The Pilomotor muscle will do what with the hair follicle on your body when stimulated by cold or emotions? Pull the hair follicles upright
What follicle is found on the end of fingers and toes? Nail follicles
What takes place in the nail root at the base of the nail? Mitosis
A stronger form of a protein than found in hair is produced in the nail cells what is this called? Keratin
The nail itself consists of what? Keratinized dead cells
The flat nail bed is living what? Epidermis and dermis
Nails protects the ends of the fingers and toes from what? Mechanical injury
Most sensory receptors for the cutaneous senses are found in the? Dermis
The cutaneous senses are? Touch, pressure, heat, cold, itch, and pain
For heat, cold, itch and pain the receptors are? Free nerve endings
For touch and pressure the receptors are? Encapsulated nerve endings
Encapsulated nerve endings means that there is a cellular structure around the what? Sensory nerve ending
What is the purpose of these receptors and sensations? Provide the central nervous system with information about the external environment and its effect on the skin
The sensitivity of an area of skin is determined how? By how many receptors are present
When receptors detect changes they generate nerve impulses that are carried to? The brain
The brain interprets the impulses as a what? Particular sensation
The ducts of sebaceous glands open into what? Hair follicles and the skin surface
The secretion of the sebaceous glands is? Sebum
Sebum is commonly referred to as what? Oil
Sebum inhibits the growth of what on the skin? Bacteria
Another function of sebum is to prevent what? The drying of skin and hair
Ceruminous glands are found in the dermis of the what? Ear canal
The secretion of the ceruminous glands is called what? Cerumen
Another name for cerumen is? Ear wax
Cerumen keeps the outer surface of the eardrum what? Pliable and prevents drying
What are the two types of sweat glands? Apocrine and Eccrine
These glands are most active in stressful and emotional situations which are they? Apocrine glands
These glands are found all over the body and is most active during exercise or in a warm environment which are they? Eccrine glands
The loss of to much body water in sweat may lead to what? Dehydration
Small arteries that have smooth muscle that allows them to constrict or dilate are called what? Arterioles
Arterioles are important in the maintenance of body temperature because blood carries heat which is a form of what? Energy
In a warm environment the arterioles will dilate this is called what? Vasodilation
Vasodilation increases what? Blood flow
In a cold environment the areterioles will constrict this is called what? Vasoconstriction
Vasoconstriction decreases what? Blood flow
Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction is essential for maintaining what? Homeostasis
When blood flow in the dermis may be interrupted by prolonged pressure on the skin is called what? Decubitus ulcer
Another name for dububitus ulcer is a? Pressure sore
Without the blood supply to the skin what will happen to it after a prolonged amount of time? The skin will die
When the skin dies it is a potential site for a what? Bacterial infection
Subcutaneous tissue or superficial fascia connects what to what? The dermis to the underlying muscles
Superficial fascia is made of what tissues? Areolar connective tissue and adipose tissue
What cells produce histamine, leukotrienes, and other chemicals that help bring about inflammation? Mast cells
Created by: ShanellStock



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