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HA Ch. 7

Skeletal System III: Appendicular Skeleton

appendicular skeleton consists of pectoral girdle, upper limb/extremity, pelvic girdle, lower limb/extremity
supporting elements are called girdles
pectoral girdle contains clavicles and scapula which form the shoulders
clavicle collar bone; slender and slightly curved long bone (s shaped)
sternal end of clavicle medial end, attaches to manubrium (ice cream cone)
acromial end of clavicle lateral end, articulates with scapula
trapezoid line (visible on inferior aspect) attachment site for ligament
conoid tubercle attachment site for ligament (acromial end and inferior view)
functions of clavicle attachment site for muscles, anterior braces/struts to hold scapulae and arms away from the thorax, transmit compression forces from upper limbs to thorax
sacpula shoulder blades, thin, triangular flat bones
borders of scapula superior, medial, lateral
superior border shortest and sharpest
medial border parallels the vertebral column
lateral border thick and next to axilla, ends superiorly in a shallow fossa or gleniod cavity
glenoid cavity shallow fossa/cavity which joins with the head of the humerus
angles of scapula superior, lateral (gleniod cavity), inferior (moves as arm is raised and lowered)
scapular spine bony ridge on posterior aspect of scapula
acromion joins with acromial end of clavicle
coracoid process bend finger process, attachment point for biceps brachii muscle and ligament attachment to clavicle
suprascapular notch nerve passageway
fossae of scapula infraspinous, supraspinous, subscapular
infraspinous fossa is on posterior aspect
supraspinous fossa is on posterior aspect
subscapular fossa is formed by entire anterior surface of scapula
upper limb/extremity contains how many bones 30 bones/limb; brachium 1, antebrachium 2, hand 27
brachium comprised of humerus, largest/longest bone in upper extremity
brachium joins with the scapula at shoulder and with radius and unla at elbow
proximal end features of humerus head, anatomical and surgerical neck, greater and lesser tubercle, intertubercular groove/sulcus, deltoid tuberosity, radial groove
head of humerus fits into glenoid cavity of scapula (bulbous)
anatomical neck constricted region located inferolateral to the head
greater tubercle large projection on lateral edge of epiphysis
greater tubercle forms...attaches... lateral margin of shoulder...supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor muscles
lesser tubercle lies on anterior and medial surface of the epiphysis and marks insertion point for subscapularis muscle
intertubercular groove (sulcus) seperates greater/lesser tubercles
sulcus guides a tendon of the biceps brachii muscle to its attachment point
surgical neck narrowed region located distal to the tubercles
most frequently fractured part of humerus surgical neck
deltoid tuberosity elevated surface that runs along the lateral borders of the humerus shaft; extends more than halfway down its length; attachment site for deltoid muscle
radial groove runs along the posterior margin of the deltoid tuberosity; guides radial nerve of upper extremity
distal end features of humerus articular condyle, medial/lateral epicondyles, medial/lateral supracondylar ridges, olecranon fossa, coronoid fossa, radial fossa
articular condyle contains trochlea and capitulum
articular condyle dominates a ... distal, inferior surface of the humerus... low ridge that divides the condyle into 2 distinct articular regions
trochlea (medial) spool-shaped that articulates with ulna
capitulum (lateral) rounded region that forms the lateral surface of condyle, ARTICULATES WITH RADIUS
medial/lateral epicondyles are attachment sites for forearm muscles
olecranon fossa (posterior) articulates with olecranon process of ulna
coronoid fossa (anterior) accepts projections, along with olecranon fossa, form the surface of the ulna as the elbow approaches full flexion or extension
radial fossa (anterior) shallow depression superior to the capitulum, accommodates a small part of the radial head as the forearm approaches the humerus
antebrachium consists of ulna and radius
which ends of the radius and ulna join with the humerus proximal ends
which ends of ulna and radius join with the carpus distal ends
where do the radius and ulna articulate with each other? proximal/distal radioulnar joints
interosseous membrane connects radius and ulna along their entire length
spination radius(lateral) and ulna (medial) are parallel
pronation radius rotates medially over the ulna
ulna forms elbow
ulna is the proximal end and the distal end wide...narrow and slightly longer than the radius
main function of the ulna is to form elbow joint with humerus
proximal end features of the ulna olecranon, coronoid process, radial notch
olecranon and coronoid processes are seperated by...grip... trochlearnotch...trochlea of humerus and form a hinge joint
olecranon and coronoid processes allow flexion and extension movements
radial notch smooth depression where ulna joins with head of radius
distal end features of ulna head and styloid process
head of ulna is seperated from bones of the wrist by a disc of fibrocartilage; little or no role in hand movement
styloid process attachment site for ligament to the wrist
radius is proximal end and ... at its distal end thin...wide (opposite of ulna)
proximal end features of radius head, neck, radial tuberosity
head of radius is shaped like end of a spool of thread
head of radius articulates with capitulum of humerus
head of radius medially articulates with radial notch of ulna, forming the proximal radioulnar joint
neck of radius is the narrowed region that extends from the radial head to the radial tuberosity
radial tuberosity is the attachment site for the biceps brachii muscle, which flexes the elbow, swinging the forearm toward the arm
distal end of radius features ulnar notch, styloid process
ulnar notch articulates with head of ulna, forming the distal radioulnar joint
styloid process anchors ligament to wrist
extreme distal end of radius is concave and articulates with carpal bones of the wrist
radius contributes heavily to the wrist joint
hand consists of carpus (8), metacarpus (5), digits (14)
carpus (true wrist) consists of 8 marble sized bones(carpals) which are closely united by ligaments that are arranged in 2 irregular rows of four bones each
proximal row: lateral(thumb side) to medial scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform
scaphoid joins with radius to form wrist joint
lunate moon/comma shaped and joins with radius to form wrist joint
triquetrum triangular bone/pyramid, joins with cartilage that separate the ulnar head from wrist
pisiform smallest/pea shaped and lies anterior to the triquetrum/extends farther medially than any other carpal bone in both proximal and distal rows
distal row: lateral to medial trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
trapezium lateral bone of the distal row; forms a proximal join with scaphoid
trapezoid wedge-shaped; smalled distal carpal bone and forms a proximal articulation with the scaphoid
capitate largest carpal, shaped like a head
hamate contains a hook like projection
mneumonic device (proximal-distal rows) sally left the party to take carlos home
carpal tunnel syndrome inflammation of any element in carpal tunnel (from overuse) compresses the median nerve, thereby causing pain or numbness
metacarpus (palm) 5 bones that radiate distally from wrist
metacarpals 1 (thumb side) - 5 (pinky)
metacarpal bases articulate with the carpals proximally and with each other on their medial and lateral sides
metacarpals bulbous heads articulate with the proximal phalanges of the fingers distally to form the knuckles
knuckles metacarpophalangeal joints
digits (phalanx/phalanges) thumb and rest of fingers
pollex thumb (2 phalanges) proximal phalanx and distal phalanx
digits have 3 phalanges each (proximal, middle, distal)
pelvic girdle attaches to axial skeleton by some of the strongest ligaments
coxal bones hip bones or os coxae or innominate bones; each have 3 seperate bones during childhood and fused in adults
boundaries of 3 seperate hip bones are indistinguishable but names are used to refer to the 3 different regions of the coxal bone
y shaped junction is formed where all 3 regions meet (ilium, ischium, pubis)
ilium superior region of coxal bone
iliac crest thickened superior margin of ala; site of muscle attachment
iliac spines (4) posterior superior, anterior superior, posterior inferior, anterior inferior
anterior superior iliac spine is the prominent anatomical landmark which can be felt anterior to the hip
acetabulum located at y shaped junction of ilium, ischium and pubis
acetabulum is the deep hemispherical socket that articulates with the ball shaped head of the femur, forming the hip joint
greater sciatic notch located posteriorly just inferior to posterior inferior iliac spine
greater sciatic notch is a deep indentation through which the sciatic nerve passes, to enter the thigh
iliac fossa concave internal surface of the iliac ala
auricular surface roughened area which articulates with sacrum - sacroiliac joint
arcuate line helps define the superior boundary of the true pelvis
ischium posteroinferior region (l shaped)
ischium consists of a thicker, superior body and thinner, inferior ramus
ischial spine triangular projection, which is located posterior to the acetabulum and projects medially
ischial spine is the attachment site for sacrospinous ligament
lesser sciatic notch is inferior to the ischial spine
which nerves and vessels pass through the lesser sciatic notch? perineum nerves and vessels
ischial tuberosity rough, thickened area of inferior surface of ischial body
pubis paired v shaped pubic bones that forms anterior region of coxal bone
superior pubic ramus branch of the pubis issuing from a flat body
inferior pubic ramus branch of the pubis issuing from a flat body
pubic crest thickened anterior border of pubic body
pubic tubercle knob like lateral end of pubic crest
pubic tubercle is the attachment point for inguinal ligament
obturator foramen is a large opening between the pubis and the ischium
few...pass through the obturator foramen vessels and nerves
obturator foramen is almost completely closed by fibrous obrurator membrane
pubic symphysis is a fibrocartilaginous disc that joins the two pubic bones
pubic arch formed by the inferior pubic rami and the ishcial rami
the angle of the pubic arch helps to distinguish between male and female pelves
shallower and lighter female pelves provide more room in the true pelvis for childbearing purposes
lower limb/extremity femur, crus, pes
femur (thigh) largest, longest, strongest bone in the body and can endure 280 kilograms per square cm (2 tons per square inch)
proximal end features of femur head, fovea capitis, neck, greater/lesser trochanter, intertrochanteric line/crest, pectineal line, gluteal tuberosity, linea aspera, femoral shaft
head of femur ball-like proximal end
fovea capitis small, central pit on femoral head (medial)
ligament of the head of the femur runs from fovea capitis to the acetabulum
neck of the femur angles 125 degrees laterally to join the shaft and is the weakest part of femure (fractured in a broken hip)
greater trochanter (lateral) projects laterally from the junction of the neck and shaft
greater trochanter is the attachment site for various tendons and muscles
lesster trochanter posteromedial, originates on the posteromedial surface of femure and attachment site for various tendons and muscles
intertrochanter line interconnect the trochanters (anteriorly)
intertrochanteric crest interconnect the trochanters posteriorly
pectineal line medial; inferior to the intertrochanteric crest(pectineus muscle attachment)
gluteal tuberosity lateral, posterior side of shaft and attaches the gluteal muscle
linea aspera posterior, prominent elevation located on posteroinferior surface of shaft (attachment for powerful hi muscles)
powerful hip muscle adductor muscles
femoral shaft strong, massive, but curves along its length
lateral bow of shaft facilitates weight bearing and balance
distal end features of femur medial/lateral supracondylar ridge, latera/medial condyles, latera/medial epicondyles, adductor tubercle, intercondylar fossa, patellar surface
supracondylar ridge (posterior) linea aspera distally divides into these two ridges to form a flattened triangular area (popliteal surface)
condyles (posterior) distal broadened area of the femur, wagon wheel shaped
epicondyles most raised points on the sides of the condyles (ligament attachment site)
adductor tubercle bump on upper part of medial condyle
intercondylar fossa seperates the two condyles posteriorly
patellar surface seperates 2 condyles anteriorly
patella triangular sesamoid bone enclosed within the tendon that secures the quadriceps femoris muscles of anterior thigh to the tibia
functions of patella strengthens the quadriceps tendon, protects anterior surface of knee joint, increases contraction force of quadriceps femoris
patella is a rough, convex anterior surface with broad, superior base and roughly pointed inferior apex
posterior facets for medial and lateral condyles of femur (patella)
posteroinferior surface is for patellar ligament
crus consists of tibia and fibula
tibia second largest/strongest bone of body
tibia receives the weight of the body from femur to transmit to the foot
the tibia is the medial bone
features of tibia medial/lateral condyles, intercondylar eminence, tibial tuberosity, anterior crest, medial malleolus, articular surface, proximal/dital tibiofibular joint
medial/lateral condyles of tibia broad proximal end, resemble two thick checkers lying side by side on top of shaft
the superior articular surfaces of condyles of tibia are slightly concave
intercondylar eminence irregular projection that seperates the two condyles
tibial tuberosity anterior, attachment site for patellar ligament
anterior border/crest sharp subcutaneous anterior ridge on the tibial shaft
medial malleolus inferior projection which forms the medial bulge of ankle
medial malleolus articulates with the talus bone of the foot
articular surface flat, distal end tibia, which articulates with talus of the foot
proximal tibiofibular joint contains facet on inferior part of lateral tibial condyle that articulates with the fibula
distal tibiofibular joint contains fibular notch that articulates with the fibula
fibula is a thin, long bone with 2 expanded ends
fibula is located lateral to the tibia
features of fibula fibular head, lateral malleolus, shaft
fibular head superior, proximal end
lateral malleolus inferior projection which forms the lateral bulge of ankle
lateral malleolus articulates with talus of foot
shaft of fibula is heavily ridged, appears to have been twisted a 1/4 turn
fibula does not bear weight, but several muscles originate from it
fractures most often occur at the medial and lateral malleoli of the tibia and fibula
fractures of fibula and tibiaare caused by inversion or eversion of the foot at the ankle
pes (foot) bones consist of tarsus, metatarsus, phalanges
functions of foot bones supports the body's weight, act as a lever to propel body forward during walking and running
segmentation makes the foot pliable, making it adaptable to uneven ground
medial side of the foot is the hallux, opposite from the orientation of the hand where the pollex is the lateral side,in anatomical position
tarsus is the posterior half of the foot which contains 7 tarsal bones
talus ankle, second largest bone in foot
talus transmits body weight from the tibia anteriorly toward the toes
trochleaof talus smooth superior surface, which contains lateral and medial extensions that articulate with the lateral malleolus and medial malleolus respectively
calcaneous heel bone, largest tarsal bone
calcaneus carries talus on its superior surface
what attaches to the posterior surface of the calcaneus? thick tendon of calf muscles (achilles tendon)
calcaneal tuberosity part of calcaneus that touches the ground
sustentaculum tali medial, shelf-like projection, which articulates with the talus superiorly
cuboid (lateral) cube shaped tarsal
navicular (medial) boat like tarsal
medial/intermediate/lateral cuneiform bones anterior, wedge shaped, located anterior to navicular, named according to their position
metatarsus distal portion of the foot
how many metatarsals are in 1 foot 5 small, long bones (I-V)
metatarsals help support body weight during walking, standing, and running
metatarsals form the balls of the foot
phalanges of the toes (14) smaller than fingers (less agile) but same general structure/arrangement
hallux (big toe) distal phalanx and proximal phalanx
digits 2-5 distal,middle, proximal phalanges
Created by: handrzej
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