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S. Anat3

Cells

QuestionAnswer
Smallest iving subunit o a multicellular organism Cell
Selectively permeable Cell/plasma membrane
Made of phospholipids, cholesterol, and protein Cell/plasma membrane
Phospholipid bilayer double layer
Allows lipid soluble compounds to move in and out by difussion Phospholipid bilayer
Decreases fluidity stabilizing the membrane Cholesterol
Receptor sites for hormones or other compounds Proteins
All cells mature except RBC
Nucleus have _____layered nuclear membrane Double
Nucleus contains chromosomes
Nucleus contains ___chromosomes 46
Nucleus made of threads of chromatin
Nucleus contains The genetic code for one protien
LIquid solution of dissolved minerals, gases and other molecules Cytoplasm
"Organs" of the cell Organells
Found on ER or floating in cytoplasm Ribosomes
Synthesizes protein Ribosomes
Barrel shaped organelles made of enzymes that cut protein molecules apart Proteasomes
Gets rid of damaged proteins that have been tagged by ubiquitin Proteasomes
ER Endoplasmic Riticulum
Allows us to use the AAs to build protien in ribosomes Proteasomes
Membranous tubules that extent from nuclear membrane to the cell membrane Endoplasmic Ritiulum
ER (2types) Rough Smooth
Ribosomes on the surface Rough ER
synthesizes proteins in the ribosomes Rough ER
No ribosomes on the surface Smooth ER
Sythesizes lipids Smooth ER
Fat membranous sacs stacked like pancakes Golgi Apparatus
sythesizes and package carbohydrates Golgi Apparatus
Golgi Apparatus synthezises and packages____ Carbohydrates
Mitochondria (sing. Mitochdrian
Power house of the cell Mitochondria
Has double membrane folds called cristae Mitochondria
ATP production Mitochondria
Mitochondria have their own separate____ DNA
Mitochondria _____ during cell division Duplicates
Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes called Lysozymes
Lysosomes digest bacteria during ____ or WBC phagocytosis
Phagocyte A cell that engulfs and consumes foreign material
Rod shaped Centrioles
Organize spindle fibers that separate chromosomes during cell division Centrioles
Centriols organized spindle fibers that separate chromosomes during ____ cell division
Hair like projections on certain cells Cilia
Cilia (sing) Cilium
Beat in unison causeing wave-like motion to move things acros the surface DOES NOT MOVE CELL Cilia
Found on fallopian tubes, airways in lungs Cilia
Flagella (sing) flagellum
Thread like projection through the cell membrance Flagella
Provides motility Flagella
Flagella provides_____ motility
______ is the only human cell with flagellum Sperm
Folds in the cell membrane that increase surface area to increase funtion Microvilli
Microvilli are fold in the _____ that increase ____ are and increase_____. Cell membrane, surface, function
Increase absorption in small intestines and kidney tubules Microvilli
Pinched off plasma membranes during phagocytosis and pinocytosis Vacules
Pinocytosis the uptake of fluid by a cell by pinching off cell membrane
Mechanisms to move substances in and out of the cell Cellular transport mechanism
Forms of cellular transport (7) Diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, active transport, phagocytosis, pinocytosis
Diffusion movement of molecules from greater area of cencentration ot an area of lower concentration until equalibrium is reached
Diffusion is from an area of _____ concentration to an area of ____ till ____ is reached Greater, lower, equalibrium
Molecules randomly move until evenly dispersed in solid, liquid or gas Diffusion
Diffusion of water through semi permiable membrane Osmosis
Water moves from area of high concentration to are of low concentration till equalibrium is reached Osmosis
Equal concentration of solutes Isotonic
Low concentration of solutes Hypotonic
High concentraiton of solutes Hypertonic
Osmosi occurs becuse membrane will not allow anything but _____ to cross Water
Facilitated diffusion molecules through a membrane with help from protein in the cell membrane called transporters or carrier enzymes
Facilitated diffusion ex Glucose, AA
energy requiring process of moving molecules against a concentration gradiend ( lesser to greater) Active transport
Active transport requires Filtration
Substances are forced through membane by mechanical pressure Filtration
During filtrations substances are forced through membane by mechanical ______ pressure
bring nutrients ro cells and waste products out of the blood and kidneys Filtration
White cells engulf something Phagocytosis
Makes vacuoles Phagocytosis
Stationary cells engulf something Pinocytosis
Double strand of nucleotides DNA
Made of A T G C DNA
Sequence or ATGC determines genetic code
gene the genetic code for one protein
______synthesis occurs in the ribosomes Protein
Transcription DNA to mRNA
A mirror image of the DNA made in nucleus Messenger RNA mRNA
Leaves the nucleus and attaches to a ribosome mRNA
Translation mRNA to protein via tRNA
Attaches to mRNA at a site called anti codon Transfer RNA tRNA
tRNA attaches to mRNA at a site called ______ Anti codon
Occurs in cytoplasm Translation
tRNA pick up corresponding _____ and form peptide to make protein Amino acid
DNA- _RNA- _RNA-____ m, t, protein
Cell division (2types) Meiosis Mitosis
One cell divided into 2, identicle cells both having full set of chromosomes Mitosis
How we grow and repair Mitosis
One cell into 4, each having half of the chromosomes Meiosis
How we reproduce Meiosis
Stages of Mitosis (5) Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase -Cytokinesis
Not a phase Cytokinesis
Resting stage Cytokinesis
2 chromatid coil up Prophase
Nuclear membranes disapear Prophase
Contrioles move to oposite ends, and extend spindle fibers to the chromosomes Prophase
Chromosomes ;one up in the middle Metaphase
Centromeres atach to the spindle fibers and divide Metaphase
2 complete sets of chromosomes Metaphase
Spindle fibers pull chromosomes to each pole Anaphase
Chromosomes uncoil and become chromatin Telephase
Nuclear membrane reforms Telephase
Cytoplasm divides and cell membrane closes off Telephase
Results in gametes Meiosis
one cell divides twice to form 4 Meiosis
one cell divides twice (full set of 46 chromosomes) Mitosis
Haploids have _____ the DNA half
The organells in which cell respiration takes place Mitochondria
Intracellular structures with specific roles in cell functioning Organelles
egg and sperm cells gametes
MOvement of molecules against concentration gradient Active transport
the usual number of chromosomes with it a cell diploid/ 46
a membrane that permits onle certain substances to pass through semi permiable
control center of the cell nucleus
the process by which a stationary cell takes in small particles pinocytosis
half of the usual number of chromosomes haploid/ 23
diffusion of water through a membrane osmosis
found between the cell membrane and the nucleus cytoplasm
mode of phopholipids, cholesterol, and proteins cell membrane
a statement that best explains the available evidence theory
type of cell division essentioal fro repair of tissue mitosis
the process in which blood bpressure creates tissue fluid filtration
a human cell has 46 of these chromosomes
genetic code fro one protein gene
movement of molecules with or along a concentratin gradient diffusion
oxygen requiring aerobic
Created by: Sarsileigh