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endocrine system

QuestionAnswer
define gland an organ that secretes a substance
describe exocrine glands secrete substances via ducts to the outside of the body
describe endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into blood capillaries
describe true endocrine glands produce only hormones
describe endocrine tissue tissues found in organs that produce hormones, yet function in other ways as well
name the 6 true endocrine glands hypophysis, thyroid, adrenals, thymus, pineal, parathyroid (hey take away those pitiful puppies)
name the 10 places endocrine tissue can be found heart, lungs, testes, ovaries, stomach, small intestine, pancreas, hypothalamus, kidneys, placenta (if pregnant)
which endocrine glands originate from the ectoderm? pineal, hypophysis, adrenal medulla
which endocrine gland originates from the mesoderm? adrenal cortex
which endocrine glands originate from the endoderm? thymus, thyroid, parathyroid
name and describe the two local types of hormones autocrines: act on themselves paracrines: act on nearby cells
define amine hormone comprised of one type of amino acid
name the amines histamines, triptophan, tyrosine, T3 & T4
all amines are _____ soluble, except for __ & __, which are _____ soluble. water, T3 & T4, lipid
where are amines manufactured? RER of the secreting cell
target cell receptors are specific ________ proteins
define up-regulation target cell receptors increase in number to maintain homeostasis
define down-regulation target cell receptors decrease in number to maintain homeostasis
which is more common: down-regulation or up-regulation? down-regulation
a hormone's presence on a receptor activates the _ protein G
what does the activation of the G protein stimulate? an enzyme called adenylate cyclase, which splits ATP
as adenylate cyclase splits ___, a free _ is given off to form ___. ___ releases a free protein to become ____ ATP, P, ADP, ADP, cAMP
what does cAMP's presence stimulate? protein kinases which pick up all free Ps, causing protein alteration
define phosphorylation of protein the process of adding free Ps to existing proteins
what is the most common form of protein alteration? phosphorylation
how do lipid soluble hormones interact with target cells? slip through the cell membrane and enter the target cell
the lipid soluble hormone attaches to the intracellular receptor, forming a _______-________ ________ hormone-receptor complex
where does the hormone-receptor complex bind? receptor proteins on the chromatin of DNA
during transcription, the hormone-receptor complex alters the strand of ____ mRNA
during translation, ____ assembles a new protein from the altered ____ strand tRNA, mRNA
name the three ways hormones interact with other hormones permissively, synergistically, antagonistically
what happens when hormones interact permissively? involves two hormones, one paves the way for the action of another (FSH paves the way for estrogen)
what happens when hormones interact antagonistically? the action of one hormone opposes another (glucagon and insulin, CT and PTH)
what happens when hormones interact synergistically? more than two hormones interact to achieve a common goal most common form of interaction
what does a feedback system do? aids in the control of hormone secretion
name the three components of a feedback system receptor, brain, effector
which is more common: positive or negative feedback? negative
define negative feedback output counteracts the input
define positive feedback output intensifies the input
negative feedback has a ___________-__________ effect stimulatory-inhibitory
positive feedback has a ___________-___________ effect stimulatory-stimulatory
in what three cases does positive feedback occur? labor, clotting, disease
name the three modes of negative feedback that control hormonal secretion hormonal, humoral, neural
describe the hormonal mode of negative feedback hormones control the secretion of other hormones
describe the humoral mode of negative feedback blood levels of hormones control the secretion of other hormones
describe the neural mode of negative feedback nerve impulses control the secretion of hormones
Created by: mhaye26