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Endocrine E3

Endocrine E3 Regulation of Salt & Water Balance

what system regulates sodium and water endocrine
how is osmolality of the ECF monitored and adjusted regulating water excretion by the kidney in response to ADH
Na+ is the major ________ in ECF, maintenance of vascular volume depends on what electrolyte, maintenance sodium balance
renal mechanisms of Na+ balance are regulated by 1)renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system 2)atrial natriuretic peptide
hormonal mechanisms also regulate salt and water intake and vascular tone
all renal reabsorption is due to what 1)passive Na+ reabsorption into tubular cells following a concentration gradient at luminal surface 2)active Na+ removal from tubular cells due to Na+/K+ ATPase(pump) at basolateral surface keeps tubular intracellular Na+ low
Na+ coupled transport also reabsorbs 1)glucose 2)amino acids 3)phosphate 4)HCO3- 5)H20
hormones that regulate NaCl/H20 1)antidiurectic hormone 2)renin-angiotensin-aldosterone 3)atrial natriuretic peptide
what signals the kidney to conserve H20 ADH
when is ADH released in the kidney to conserve H20 1)plasma osmolality is increases(>280 mOsm/Kg) 2)plasma volume is decreased at least 10-15%
powerful vasoconstrictor targeting the arteriolar smooth muscle ADH
ADH via V2 receptor causes insertion of _______ making the collecting duct permeable to ______ aquaporins, H20
osmole receptors are found where in the circumventricular organs near the 3rd ventricle
what is the most potent osmolyte NaCl
what stimulates ADH during dehydration 1)increased osmolality 2)decreased volume(pressure)
what happens if there is a decrease in both osmolality and a decrease in volume osmolality is kept constant if volume depletion is small but if volume loss is large osmolality is sacrificed to maintain integrity of circulation
1)decreased ADH production(central) or decreased response of kidney to ADH(nephrogenic) 2)large amounts of dilute urine 3)concentrated body fluids if intake is not increased diabetes insipidis
1)increased ADH secretion as plasma osmolality is low 2)death can occur due to dilution of plasma electrolytes due to excessive reabsorption of free H20 syndrome of inappropriate ADH
what is renin synthesized and secreted by juxtaglomerular cells in walls of afferent renal arterioles
what is renin release stimulated by (3) 1)SNS activation associated with decreased blood pressure sensed by baroreceptors 2)decreased tension on afferent arterioles in glomerulus 3)decreased pressure in glomerulus, decreased rate of NaCl delivery to macula densa
renin catalyses the formation of ___________ from _____________ angiotensin I, angiotensinogen(liver)
angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by converting what enzyme ACE
where is angiotensin I converted to angiotensin II pulmonary endothelium as blood perfuses the pulmonary capillaries
angiotensin II is produced locally in what different tissue 1)blood vessels 2)adipose 3)brain
angiotensinogen, renin, and ACE may act as a ________ to stimulate prostaglandins or act as what paracrine, local growth factor
what is the primary signal for release of aldosterone angiotensin II
what acts in vasoconstriction in the kidney decreasing renal blood flow & glomerular filtration angiotensin II
what increases cardiac contractility angiotensin II
what redistributes blood flow: increase brain, heart, skeletal muscle, decrease skin, viscera angiotensin II
what is the most potent pressor substance known angiotensin II
angiotensin II may act as growth factor for what cardiac and smooth muscle
what are the actions of angiotensin II in the CNS stimulates thirst, appetite for Na+, secretion of ADH
ADH receptors are found where in hypothalmic cells(subfornical organ & organum vasculosum) which project to supraoptic & paraventricular N. and vasomotor centers
what is renin-angiotensin-aldosterone regulated by negative feedback, regulated by blood volume which increases as a result of sodium retention
what promotes the excretion of sodium in the urine atrial natriuretic peptide
what is atrial natriuretic peptide syntehsized and secreted from atrial myocyctes, 28aa in response to stretch(increased atrial pressure)
another form of brain natiuretic peptide is synthesized and secreted by atrial and ventricles isolated from the brain
CNP is found in CNS and endothelial cells
ANP/BNP binds to natriuretic peptide receptor-A(NPR-A)
natriuretic peptide receptor-B (NPR-B) binds to CNP
natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPR-C) binds to ANP/BNP/CNP
ANP half life is ________ and BNP half life is _______ 3 minutes, 20 minutes
both ANP and BNP do what stimulate formation of cyclic GMP which modify functions
what are the 3 mechanisms used to modify cellular functions 1)phosphorylation of regulatory proteins 2)cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases 3)direct ion channel regulation
physiologic actions of ANP 1)prevent volume overloading 2)lower blood volume & decrease blood pressure
what is the physiologic action of ANP on the cardiovascular system vasodilation of vascular smooth muscle
what is the physiologic action of AnP on the kidney 1)increase Na+ & H2O excretion by increase glomerular filtration & decrease Na+ & H2O reabsorption 2)decrease renin secretion by decreasing angiotensin II
what are physiologic actions of ANP on the hypthalamus 1)decrease ADH secretion 2)decrease vasomotor activity 3)inhibits thirst 4)decreases Na+ appetite
what is the physiologic action of ANP on the pituitary gland inhibits release of ACTH (decreases adrenal support)
what is the physiologic action of ANP on the adrenal gland decrease aldosterone secretion
what is the physiologic action of ANP on the sympathetic nervous system may decrease norepinephrine release from SNS & decrease epinephrine release from adrenal medulla
what are the 4 derangements of fluid balance discussed in class 1)hemorrhage 2)dehydration 3)salt loading 4)salt depletion
what happens during a hemorrhage 1)immediate response is massive vasoconstriction mediated by SNS 2)slower in onset stimulated by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone 3)stimulation of ADH 4)inhibition of ANP
what happens during dehydration 1)H2O loss > solute loss leads to increase in both ECF and ICF osmolality 2)ADH primary way to correct because it promotes H2O reabsorption without reabsorbing solute 3)inhibition of ANP
what happens during salt loading promotes the excretion of increased Na+ in the urine
what happens during salt depletion minimizes excretion of Na+ in the urine
when salt loading 350 mm/day/5days what are the levels 1)plasma Na+ 140mm 2)hematocrit 38% 3)ADH, ANP, urine Na+ all increase 4)plasma renin activity, aldosterone decrease 5)plasma protein concentration stays constant 6)volume expansion
when salt depletion 10mm/day/5days what are the levels 1)plasma Na+ 140mm 2)hematocrit 41% 3)ADH, ANP, urine Na+ decrease 4)plasma renin activity, aldosterone increase 5)plasma protein concentration stays constant 6)volume contraction
Created by: ellerjason12