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Jewish Emancipation, Labor, Socialism and Politics to WWI

Habsburg Jews gained Christian rights when? 1782
Jews were accepted as French citizens when? 1789
Examples of Jewish discrimination: Conditional rights Discriminatory taxes Unable to own land
Pogroms Russian-approved riots against Jews
Jewish political associations: Took part in Parliaments and cabinets outside of Russia. Mostly Liberals, some Socialist
Anti-Semitics were first heard around the: 1870s. Pronounced in Germany and France 1880s
Effects of Industrial expansion: Decline of Artisans Increase of wage earners and workers End of rioting- post-1848
Union legality Fully legal in Britain 1871, France 1875, Germany 1890
Worker's union goals: Improvements for wages and working conditions. Worked as a collective unit
Effects of democracy Politicians had to listen to workers, workers could voice problems in government, provided socialist opportunities
Socialism vs Nationalism Socialism united classes, not nationalities. Nationalism won because of its emotional appeal
First International founded 1864 by French and British trade unionists. Comprised of radical groups. Gathered statistics and informed workers Suppressed by French authority by Paris Commune. Dissolved 1876
Fabianism Founded 1884. Most influential British socialist party. Believed in democratic, peaceful and gradual reform.
Jean Jaures French socialist. Wanted to cooperate with radical workers to ensure the enactment of social legislation.
Jules Guesde French socialist. Should not support a cabinet that they wanted to overthrow
German Social Democratic Party SPD. Founded 1875. Wanted workers to participate in politics. Divided between reform or revolution.
How did Bismarck draw people away from socialism? He enacted social welfare legislation. 1883- Health insurance 1884- Accident insurance
Eduard Bernstein British socialist. Questioned and criticized the Marxist beliefs of capitalist decline etc.
Revisionism Socialist idea created by Bernstein. The concept of social reform through democracy instead of revolution
Why was revisionism condemned in Germany? Social democracy may have been possible in Britain, but Germany was too militaristic and authoritative
Russian Industrialization Tzar Alexander III and Nicholas II believed it would make Russia powerful again. Led by Count Sergei Witte
Industrial advancements Railway system grew 1890-1904 Coal output tripled Pig-iron and steel production increased Textile and factory system expanded
Difference in Russian socialists Socialist accomplishments elsewhere had no meaning in Russia, as it had a small working class and no representative institutions. Russian socialists were revolutionary. Had to function in exile due to repressive policies
Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. disciple of the leading Russian Marxist. Spent extensive time studying Social democracy in Switzerland.
Effect of Bloody Sunday Rumors and deaths caused by a petitioning group led to the loss of trust for the tzar. Caused an increase of revolutionary activity for the next ten months.
Soviets Worker groups who originally striked in Saint Petersburg and dominated the city
Created by: Cianci