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chapt.3

cells

QuestionAnswer
what are cells? smallest living subunits of a multicellular organism.
how many kinds of cells are in humans? over 200
what is cholestral? decreases fluidity stabilizing the membrane
how manly chromosomes do we have? 46
what is cytoplasm? liquid solution of dissolved minerals, gases, and other molecules
what are organelles made of? protein and rRNA
what is proteosome? barrel shaped organelle made of enzymes that cut protein molecules apart
what does ER stand for? endoplasmic reticulum
what are the two types of ER? rough ER and smooth ER
what is rough ER? rigosomes on the surface
what is smooth ER? no bibosomes on the surface
what digestive enzymes do they contain? lysosymes
when do they digest bacteria? diring phagocytosis
wht is cilia? many hairlike projections on certain cells
wht is flaguella? mobile thread like projectin through the cell membrane
what is the only cell with flagellum? sperm
what are vacuoles? pinched off plasma membrane during phagocytosis and pinovytosis.
what is diffusion? movement of molecules
wht is osmosis? diffusion of water through a selectivly permeable membrane
what concentratin of solutes does isotonic have? equal
wht concentratin of solutes does hypotonic have? low
wht is facillated diffusion? diffusion molecules through a membrane with help form proteins in the cell membrane called transporters
what is active transport? energy requiring process of moning molecules against a concentratino gradient
wht is filtration? substances are forced through a membrane by mechanical prissure
wht is phagocytosis? moving cell engulfs something
what is pinocytosis? stationary cell engulfs something
where does protein synthesis occur? ribosomes
wht is genetic disease illness due to mistake in DNA
what are two types of cell division? mitosis and meiosis
what is mitosis? one cell divides into 2 identicalcells both having a full set of chromosomes
what is meiosis? one cell divides in into 4 cells each having half of the chromosomes
what is a diploid number? full set of chromosomes
wht is the first stage of mitosis? interpahse
what is the second stage of mitosis? prophase
wht is the third stage of mitosis? metaphase
what is the fourth stage of mitosis? anaphase
what is the fifth stage of mitosis? telopahse
what is fertilization? egg and sperm meet and join chromosomes to form a diploid zygote
what contains chromosomes of a cell? cell membrane
what is made of phospholipis, protein, and cholesterol? cell membrane
what controls the center of a cell? nucleus
what has a watery solution of minerals, organic molecules, and gases? cytoplasm
what forms the outermost boundary of a cell? cell membrane
wht contains the nucleolus? nucleus
what allows certain substances to enter or leave the cell? nucleus
wht is found between the cell membrane and nuclius? cytoplasm
what is selectivly preamable? cytoplasm
what do mature red blook cells lack? cell membrane
wht provides stability for a cell membrane? cholestral
what forms fores and transporters in a membrane? protien
what are antigens? proteins
what permits diffusion of a lipid soluble into a cell? phospholipid
what are receptor sites for hormones? protein
what is made of protein and ribosomal RNA? Ribosomes
wht is a double membrane structure? flagellum
what are two rod shaped structures the are perpendicular to eachother? centrioles
what is a single long thread like projection? proteasome
what is a short thread like projection through a cell? cilia
what is a single membrane structure that contains tissue enzymes? lysosomes
what are folds of a cell membrane on a free surface? microvilli
what is a series of flat membranous sacs? golgi apparatus
what is barrel shaped enzymatic structure? mitochondria
what is the site of protein synthesis? ribosomes
what is the site fo destruction of damaged proteins? lysosomes
what is the site of ATP production? proteasome
wht digests worn out cell parts or digests bacteria? golgi apparatus
what probides motility for a sperm cell? flagellum
what sweeps materials across a cell surface? cilia
what is a passageway for materials in a cell? endoplasmic reticulum
wht organizes spindle fibers in cell division? centrioles
what secretes minerals in a cell? mitochondria
what increases a surface area by absorption of a cell? micovilli
what is diffusion? movement of molecules from greater concentration to lesser concentration
what is osmosis? diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane
what is facilitated diffusion? water and dissolved materials move through a membrane to area of higher pressure to area of lower.
what is active transport? diffusion of molecules requiring carrier enzyes or transporters
what is filtration? the use of energy to move molecules form area of lesser con to higher
what is pahgocytosis? the engulfing of something by a moving cell
what is pinocytosis? the engulfing of somehting by a stationary cell
what absorbs water by the small intestine or kidneys? osmosis
what is movement of oxygen from blood to cells of body? facilitated duffusion
what forces plasma out to become tissue fluid? filtaration
what engulfs bacteria by white blood cells? phagocytosis
what intakes glucose by cells of body? facilitated diffusion
mitosis is necesary to produce what? egg and sperm cells
what is mitosis necessary for? growth and repair of tissues
what is the function of cilia? sweep material across a surface
what does the nucleus of a cell do? regulates the activites of a cell by the genetic material it contains
what is the genetic code for a gene? carbohydrates
what human cells dont undergo mitosis in an adult? nerve cells and muscle cells
what is the function of a microvilli cell? increase the surface area of the cell membrane
what is mitochondria? the site of cell respiration and ATp production
what is a lysosome? contain enzymes to digest worn out cell parts
what is endoplasmic reticulum? membranous tubules that are passageways within the cell
what enables cells to absorb more material? microvilli
what have enzymes that destroy damagedd cell parts? lysosomes
what has many different receptor sites? cell membrane
wht is made of DNA and protein? chromosomes
what is a series of transport tunnels in the cytoplasm? endoplasmic reticulum
Created by: jessfowler08