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S. Anat2


Positive charge Proton
Neutral charge Neutron
Negative charge Electron
Non ion atoms charge Neutral
Atomic number Number of protons
Elements Substance made of one type of atom
Atomic weight Average mass of protons + neutrons
@ or more molecules bonded together Molecule
+ ion cation
- ion anion
Sharing of electrons Covalent bond
Covalent bond between 2 sulfer atoms Disulfide bond
Hydrogen covalently bonded to another atom Hydrogen bond
Creating or breaking chemical bonds Chemical reaction
2 kinds of chemical reactions synthesis and decomposition
Synthesis atoms formed to make new compound
Decomposition atoms broken to form 2 or more smaller molecules
Synthesis requires energy
Decomposition releases energy
Water is a solvent
Solutes dissociate in water
Lubricant reduces friction in GI tract and joints
Requires a lot of ____ to raise temperature heat
Gives off a lot of ______ when cooled energy
Intracellular fluid ICF water within the cells
Extracellular fluid ECF water outside the cells
4 ECF compartment Plasma Lymph Interstitial fluid Specialized fluid
Plasma water in the blood
Lymph water in the lymph system
Interstitial fluid water found between cells
Specialized fluid Synovial fluid, CSF, aqueous humor,
Oxygen O2 molecule in the form of a gas
Oygen important in cellular respiration
Carbon dioxide CO2 molecule in the form of a gas
Carbon dioxide waste product of cellular respiration
pH parts hydrogen
Acid substance that increases the concentration of H+ ions in water
Base (alkaline) substance the decreases the concentration of H+ ions in water
Acidic on pH scale 0-6.99
Base on pH scale 7.01-14
7 on the pH scale neutral
pH of blood 7.35-7.45
Gastric juice (b or a) acid
Saliva (b or a) acid
Sea water (b or a) base
Baking soda (b or a) base
What does a buffer system do regulates pH
Organic compounds contain hydrogen AND carbon
Carbohydrate classifications (4) Monosaccharides Disaccharide Oligosaccaride Polysaccharide
Monosaccharides single sugar carbohydrates
Disaccharides two sugar carbohydrates
Deoxyribose pentose sugar...part of DNA
Ribose pentose sugar....part of RNA
Disaccharide (bond) Covalently bonded
Disaccharide examples Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose
Oligosacccharides 3-20 sugar cabohydrates
Polysaccharides 20-infinity sugar carbohydrates
Polysaccharides example Starches Glycogen Cellulose
Starchs glucose stored in plant cell walls
Glycogen the form of glucose stored in animals (in liver and skeletal muscle)
Cellulose Chain of glucose in plant cell walls
What Polysaccharides can we NOT digest cellulose
Lipids fats
Lipids (3) True fats Phospholipids Steroids
True Fats made of Glycerol and 1, 2, or 3 fatty acids
Monoglyceride glycerol with 1 fatty acid
Diglyceride glycerol with 2 fatty acids
Triglycerides glycerol with 3 fatty acids
True fats may be... Saturated unsaturated
Satutrated all carbons bonded to the max number of carbons
Unsaturated one or more carbons are double bonded
Saturated (state) usually solid at room temp
Unsaturated state) usually liquid at room temp
Saturated (origin) usually from animal fat
Unsaturated (origin) usually from plan (oil) fats
Hydrogenated/trans fats unsaturated fats that are converted to saturated
Phospholipids contain protein and cholesterol
Phospholipids Diglyceride with phosphate group (at 3 bonding site)
Structural component of our cell membrane Phospholipids
Steroids made form cholesterol
Steroids 4 carbon rings with C and H tail
Proteins made of Amino acids (AA)
Proteins contain C, H, O, N and R (variable)
Enzymes Catalysts that speed up reactions without the need of heat
Nucleic acid DNA, RNA, ATP
Base of DNA Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytocine
Base of RNA Adenine, Guanine, Cytocine, Uracil
Double helix DNA
Adenine- Thymine
Guanine- Cytocine
Uracil- Adenine
Single strand copied form DNA RNA
DNA Deoxyribose Neucleic Acid
Ribose Neucleic Acid RNA
Adenine Triphosphate ATP
ATP basic form of energy
Made during cell respiration ATP
ADP Adenosine Triphosphate
Fe Iron
Ca Calcium
O Oxygen
C Carbon
H Hydrogen
K Postassium
Na Sodium
I Iodine
P Phosphate
Mg Magnessium
N Nitrogen
S Sulfer
Cl Chlorine
Cu Copper
Zn Zinc
Co Cobalt
Mn Manganes
F Flourine
The most abundant compound in the human body Oxygen
Part of hemoglobin in RBC Iron
Part of some proteins such as insulin Sulfer
Provides strength in bones and teech Calcium
Necessary for blood clotting Calcium
Necessary for muscle contraction Calcium
Part of the hormone thyroxine Iodine
Part of DNA and RNA phosphorus
Provides strenth in bones Phosphorus
Necessary for nerve inpulse transmission Sodium and Potassium
Necessary for muscle contraction Sodium and Potassium
Primary energy source for cells Glucose
Part of DNA and RNA Pentose sugar
A sugar that is digested to monosaccharides to produce energy Sucrose
A polysaccharide that is digested to glucose and used for energy production Starch
A polysaccharide that promotes peristalsis in the colon Glycogen
The storage form of glucose in the liver and muscles Cellulose
Also called fiber Cellulose
An energy storage molecule in subcutaneous tissue True fats
A diglyceride that is part of cell membrane Phospholipids
changed to VitD in the skin on exposure to sunlight Cholesterol
Used to synthesize the steroid hormones Cholesterol
Bonded by peptide bonds to form protein Amino acids
Includes enzymes and antibodies Proteins
Include hemoglobin and insulin Protein
6 carbon monosaccharide or hexose sugar Glucose
5 carbon monosaccharide pentose sugar
A disaccharide Sucrose
Polysaccharide made by plants for energy storage Starch
Polysaccharide for energy storage in animal cells Glycogen
Polysaccharide that is part of plant cell walls Cellulose
Made of one glycerol and 1, 2, or 3 fatty acids True fats
A diglyceride that includes a phosphate group Phospholipids
A steroid Cholesterol
The molecular subunit of protein Amino Acids
Made of many amino acids Proteins
Created by: Sarsileigh



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