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A&P Chapter 1

Definition of Anatomy: The Structures of the Body
Definition of Physiology Is the study of functions of anatomical structures.
How are living things organized? From simple to complex: Atoms, Molecules, organelles,Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism
What are the 11 organ systems? Integumentary, Lymphatic, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, Reproductive, Muscular, Skeletal, Nervous, Endocrine, and Circulatory
Circulatory System includes and does what? Heart, Blood, and Blood Vessels. Primarily a transport system that carries blood and other substances to and from the tissue cells.
Digestive System includes and does what? Oral cavity,esophagas, stomach, small/large intestines, and accessory structures. Breaks down ingested food.
Endocrine System includes and does what? thymus, thyroid, ovaries, testes, and pancreas Helps maintain body homeostasis, promotes grown and development.
Integumentary System includes and does what? Epidermal and Dermal regions Protects deeper organs, aids in regulation of body temp, produces vitamin D
Lymphatic System includes and does what? Spleen,thymus,tonsils clean blood, pick up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to the blood.
Muscular System includes and does what? Muscles Primary function is to contract or shorten.
Nervous System includes and does what? Brain, Spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors Helps body to detect changes and to respond and helps maintain homeostasis of the body
Reproductive System includes and does what? Male:testes, prostate gland, scrotum, penis, and duct system. Female: Ovaries uterine tubes uterus, mammary glands, and vagina.
Respiratory System includes and does what? Nasal passages, Pharynx, larynx trachea, bronchi, and lungs. Keeps blood continuously supplied with oxygen while removing carbon dioxide.
Skeletal System includes and does what? bones, cartilages, tendons, ligaments, and joints body support and protection of internal organs.
Urinary System includes and does what? Kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra Rids body of waste
Homeostasis The processes used to maintain body equilibrium.
Negative Feedback The response of the effector negates the stimulus (re-set)
Positive Feedback The response of the effector reinforces/exaggerates the stimulus.
Anterior/Ventral Front
Brachial Arm
Popliteal Back of the Knee
Cephalic Head
Occipital Base of the skull
Orbital Bony eye socket
Antecubital Anterior surface of the elbow
Gluteal Buttocks
Axillary Armpit
Manus Hand
Mental Chin
Femoral Thigh
Inguinal Groin
Pes Foot
Posterior/Dorsal Back
Superior Above
Cephalad/Cranial toward the head
Inferior Below
Caudal Toward the tail
Lateral Away from the midline
Medial Toward the midline
Proximal Near the trunk
Distal farther from the trunk
Superficial Toward the body surface
Deep Away from the body surface
Coronal/Frontal divides the body into anterior and pos
Transverse divides the body horizontally at the midline
Sagittal divides the body into right and left parts.
Midsagittal divides the body into equal parts right down the midline of the body.
Cranial Cavity Contains the brain
Vertebral Cavity Contains spinal cord
Thoracic Cavity Contains heart and lungs
Abdominal Cavity Contains digestive viscera
Pelvic Cavity Contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
Dorsal Body Cavity Cranial-Vertebral Cavity
Ventral Body Cavity Thoracic-Abdominal-Pelvic Cavity
Visceral membrane (visceral serosa) Visceral serous membranes line organs.
Parietal membrane (Parietal serosa) Parietal serous membranes line cavities.
Pericardial surrounding the heart
Pleural surrounding the lungs
Right Hypochondriac Region Liver and Gallbladder
Right Lumbar Region Ascending colon of large intestine
Right iliac Region Cecum and Appendix
Epigastric Region Stomach
Umbilical Region Small intestine, Transverse colon of large intestine
Hypogastric Region Urinary bladder
Left Hypochondriac Region Diaphragm
Left Lumbar Region Descending colon of large intestine
Left iliac Region initial part of colon
Created by: Kiesheia



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