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T1 Patho-Resp Sys 1

Resp Sys Physio 1/3 - MCPHS-Manchester PharmD - Pathophysiology Test 1

QuestionAnswer
the primary function of the resp sys is to obtain ____ and eliminate ____ O2; CO2
O2 is needed for _____ ; CO2 is produced by ____ use by cells, produced by cells
respiration is composed of ____ separte processes; _____ respiration 2 separate process, internal and external
which type of resp is a biochemical process internal respiration
which type of respiration synonymous c/ cellular respiration internal respiration
internal respiration includes ______ use of food for _____; use of ____ for biochemical processes; and results in ___ (2) production mitochdrial & metabolism; O2; CO2 & H2O
physiology will focus on _____ respiration; which is the ______ external respiration; exchange of gasses b/w cells and environment
ext resp steps: ______/_____ b/w atmosphere and ____ in lung -> exchange of ____ + ____ b/w ____ & ___-> transport of ____ + ___ b/w ____ & ____ -> transport of __ + ___ b/w ____ & _____ -> xchange b/w ___ + ____ -> int respiration ventilation/xchange of gasses b/w __ alveoli in lung -> O2 in + CO2 out b/w alveoli and blood -> O2 & CO2 b/w alveoli and blood-> transport of O2 + CO2 b/w blood and tissue -> xchange b/w blood and tissue -> int resp
____ circulation is charac by the transport of O2 and CO2 b/w lung and blood pulmonary
systemic circulation is charac by the transport of _________ b/w ____ + ____ O2 & CO2 b/w blood and tissues
the resp sys has nonresp fx's in that it is the route for ____ loss and ____ elimination H20 loss, heat elimination
venous return is enhanced by ___ pump by _____ inhaling/exhaling (nonresp Fx) resp pump by mechanical
normal acid/ base balance is a Fx of which sys and what type of Fx is this resp sys, nonresp Fx
speaking/singing/vocalizations are made possible by the ____ fx of the ____ sys nonresp fx of the resp sys
a nonresp Fxof the resp sys includes defending against _____ matter and provids a _____ inhaled foreign matter, physical barrier
what with in the resp sys aids the formaiton of a physical barrier against foreign inhaled matter cillia, mucous secretions, size
materials passig thru the circ sys undergo a ____ fx by the ___ sys and may be ____ (3) nonresp Fx, resp sys, modified, activated, inactivated
an ex of material subject to midofication, inactivation, and activation are ____ wihch is inactivatedd and ____ which is activated PG - inActvtx, angiotensin-2 Actvtx
the nose fx in ___ which is a ___ fx of the ___ sys smell, nonresp Fx of the resp sys
lungs are connected to the ext world by ____ air passages
the air passages from the env to the lungs are: _____/____ -> ____ -> ____ -> ____ =< 2-______ (first split) nasal passage/oral cavity-> pharynx -> larynx -> trachea =< 2 bronchi
start c/ bronchi -> _____ -> ____ -> _____ -> _____ -> alveolar sacs resp bronchioles -> resp bronchioles -> alveolar ducts -> alveolar sacs
the site of gas xchange in the lung is at the ____ and there are ___ many alveoli, a lot (~300 mill)
movement of the gasses is facilliated by the assoc _____ associated muscles
C-rings are _____ rings that Fx in ____ cartilaginous rings that Fx in keeping the trachea open and prevent it from compressing
sm musc innervates the resp sys starting with what pipe terminal bronchiole
smooth musc is innervated by the NS so it can be done ______ thought ANS c/o conscious thought
resp rate can be influ by ____ b/c of how it is controled many hormones, NT, factors
_____ surr all alveoli and are the means by which ____ & ___ occurs pulmonary capilllaries; gas xchange and diffusion
many ____ are c/i 1 alveolar sac and permit ___/___ c/i alveoli pores of kohn; gas xchange/collateral ventilation
a ___ is a thin walled, inflatable sac that Fx in ____ alveoli -> gas xchange
each alveoli is encirceld by _____ c/ close proximity pulmonary capillaries
the proximity b/w the ____ & ____ provides tremendous __ which enables a ___ rate of ____ by ____ capillaries and alveoli, SA, great rate of gas xchange by diffusion
Fick's law explains why _____ by ____ occurs so readily b/w the alveoli and cappillaries gas exchange by diffusion
O has a ___ MW, is in ___ conc which works in favor to ______ by Fick's law low MW and high Conc; diffusion
the ___ dist b/w the ___ & ____ as well as the ___ amt of pressure and available SA also contribute to _____ by Fick's law ______ small dist b/w the capillary & alveoli, high pressure, and lg SA, diffusion, favorably
the walls of the alveoli contain a ___ layer of flatened type _ ____cells single layer, type I alveolar cells
alveolar epithelium also contains type _ ____ cells type II alveolar cells
type _ enable the wall of the alveoli to remain ____ and faciliate _____ vs. type II alveolar cells which Fx in ___ facilliatation ____ & ____ type I - thin, diffusion vs. type II - secrete pulmonary surfactant, facilliatates lung expansion and maintains open
the walls of the alveoli have three components that incl___, ____, ____ type I, type II alveolar cells, alveolar macrophages
alveolar macrophages are found ___ and Fx in in the wall of the alveoli, immune defense
the single layer of type _ - ____ cells maintains a ___ wall b/w alveoli and ____ which allows for ____ by creating a _____ distance to cross type I alveolar cells, thin epithelium, b/w capillary, diffusion, small
1 capillary intercalates ____ alveoli 2-3+
___ tissue is a series of highly branched airways, alveoli, _____, BV, and lots of ____ ____ tissue lung tissue: pulkmonary BV, elastic connective
only ____ is found in the walls of the bronchioles and arterioles, subject to ____ + ____ at _____ time such that _______ musc, subject to contraction and relaxation at different, such that some are contracting as others relaxing
lung tissue with ____ and vessels, esophagus, thymus and nerves occupy _____ volume of the ____ cavity heart, most of the vol of thoracic
the outer chest wall is composed of 12 _____ which join at ____ & ____ vertebrae and fx in pairs of ribs, connect at sternum and thoarcic vertebrae, fx in protection
_____ is the skel musc for breathing in and separates the ___ from the ___ diaphragm, thoracic from abdominal cavity
_____ separates ____ lung from the ____ wall pleural sac, each lung, thoracic
____ is in the plural sac with ___ for ___ to ease breathing pleural cavity, fluid for lubrication
_____ secrete fluid into the ____ cavity for ____ & ____ breathing pleural surfaces, pleural caivty, lubrication and eases
starting from the lung -> ____ pleura -> _____ sac -> ____ pleura -> ____ wall visceral pleura -> pleural sac -> parietal pleura -> thoracic
the ____ pleura is attached to the int organs and is the ___ membrane for the ____ sac visceral pleura, internal membrane, pleural sac
____ pleura is the outer membrane attached to the ___ wall parietal pleural -> thoracic wall
What are the 3 types of resp P? atmospheric-P (barometric), intra-alv/pulmonary-P, intra-pleural/thoracic-P
_____ P is produced from the wieght of air on objects on the surf of the Earth Atmospheric-P
atmospheric-P = ___ mmHg at sealevel & ____ as elevation ___ 760mmHg at sea-lvl, dec as elevation inc
_____P is the P in alveoli intra-alv/pulmonary
intra-alveolar/pulmonary P is _____ but _____ c/ ____ -P b/c of exposure to it variable, equilibrates to atmospheric P b/c of exposure to atmosphere
___-P is the P in the pleural sac intra-pleural/thoracic
intra-plueral/throacic-P avg ___ mmHg or is ____ b/c ___ units lwr than ____-P (___mmHG) 756 mmHg, -4, 4 units below Atmospheric-P (760mmHg)
____-P is a slight vacuum compared to ____-P but is lost when ___ is in ___ cavity or aka _______ intra-pleural vacuum compared to atmospheric-P, lost when air is in pleural cavity aka pneumothorax
lungs are normally _____ which ___ thorax stretched, filling thorax
______ & _____ pulls lung outward by creating a bind making it diff to _____ intrapleural fluid's cohesiveness and stickiness, diff to separate
___ P gradient exists where (2) across lung wall and across thoracic wall
transumural P gradient across ____ wall is a net outward P b/n ____ P & and ____ P lung wall, intra-alveolar & intra-pleural
transumural P gradient across ____ wall is a net inward P b/n ____ P & and ____ P thoracic wall, intra-pleural-P and atmospheric-P
____ gradient across ____ pushes lung outward when ___ P > _____ P (located ___ to the alveoli) transmural pressure gradient across lung; outward; intra-alveolar > intra-pleural (outside of alveoli)
____ gradient across ____ pushes lung inward when ___ P > _____ P transmural P gradient across thoracic wall; atmospheric-P > intra-pleural-P
____ P gradient is ideal for soft tissue in ____ and cx's the wall to be forced _____ transmural pressure gradient ideal for soft tissue in lung, force wall outward
____ P gradient is ideal for strong ribs and cx's the wall to be forced _____ but has an ___ effect transmural P gradient across thoracic wall, inward, less effect
____ is when the lung is punctured, the ______ is lost and the lung will _____ pneumothorax, gradient is lost, lung collapse
changes in ____ P produce flow of air in and out of lungs intra-alveolar P
_____ (mmHg) < ______ (mmHg) -> air enters lung intra-alveolar (756mmHg) < atmospheric (760mmHg)
_____ > ______ -> air leaves lung alveolar > atmospheric -> out
_____ P changes according to ____ law intra-alveolar -> Boyles
Boyles Law: ___ = ____ P1V1 = P2V2
Boyles law represents a ____ relationship b/w ____ and ____, and Fx in that ___ inverse relationship b/w P and V, as P inc V dec
according to Boyle, air in when P __ and V ____ air in = P dec -> vol inc
according to Boyle, air out when P __ and V ____ air out = P inc -> vol Dec
what is responsible for changing the vol of the lungs facilitating air in and out Musc assoc c/ inspiration and expiration
what are the 3 types of musc assoc c/ ext respiration Musc of active expiration, mjr muscl of inspiration, accesory musc of inspiration
the sternocleidomastoid is consider a _____ musc of ____ acces of inspiration
the diaphragm & ___ intercostal muscl is the ____ musc of _____ ext intercostal, mjr musc of inspriation
the abdominal and ___intercostal musc are ____ musc of ____ int intercostal, musc of active expiration
which musc (2) is contracted by passive _____ and what is the resultant effect on vol, pressure an air flow expiration, diaphragm & ext intercostal , in vol, dec pressure, air in
what musc (2) when actively contracted inc P, what is the effect on vol and air abdominal and int intercostal musc, dec V, air out
what musc is innervated by the phrenic nerve and what is it Fx for contraction diaphragm, inspiration upon contraction
the intercostal nerves innervate the ___ musc and Fx in _____ upon contraction ext intercostal, inspiration
upon contraction of diaphragm, the _____ cavity ___ size thoracic cavity inc in size
the expansion of the thoracic cavity ___ P and ___ vol thus allowing air ___ Dec P and Inc Vol, air in
___ mmHg is assoc c/ the contraction of the diaphragm 754 mmHg
what is the affect on the intra-avelor P upon contraction of the diaphragm dec intra-alveolar P below atomspheric P, air in
how is the P gradient affected by the contraction of the diaphragm air enters from atmosphere to re-equilibrate
contraction of ____ elevates ribs and ___ ____ to ____ dimension of ____ cavity ext intercoastal, inc side-to-side dimension of throacic cavity
contraction of ____ changes the vertical dimension by ___ which dec the P diaphragm, inc
contraction of ____ -> elevation of the ribs -> _____ move ___ & ____ ward -> ____ ___to____ dimension of ___ cavity -> sternum up & out ward -> inc front to back dimension of thoracic cavity
expiration req the relaxation of the ____ (2) and ____ of alveoli to ___ size thus ___ P diaphragm and musc of chest wall, elastic recoil of alveoli, dec size and inc P
_____ P inc and ____ lungs for expiration intra-pleural P inc P -> compresses lungs
___ P inc and __ lung Vol intra-alvolar -> dec lung Vol
____ P is inc above atompsheric P for expiration cx'ing air ____ intra-alveolar P inc > atomspheric P -> air out
____ is an unconscious process where as ___ is an acitve or unconcious process inspiration unconscious, expiration acitve or unconscious
forced expiration = _____ expiration active
axtive expiration req voluntary _____ of addtl ___ musc to further ___ P b/w ___ & ____ by the use of the ___ & ___ muscles contraction od addtl expiratory musc -> further dec P b/w alveloi and atomospher; abdominal and int intercostals
____expiration -> relaxation of ____ and return of ____ (3) to resting position -> thoracic cavity ____ size passive expiration -> ext intercostals, return sternum, ribs, and diaphragm to resting postions, pre-inspiratory
___ expiration -> contraction of ____ & _____ -> ___ pushed further upward past resting postion + flattens ___ & ____ reducing side-to-side & front-to-back dimension -> ____ in vertical deminsion of ___ cavity + __ side-to-side & front-to-back dimension acitve expiration -> contract abdominal and int internal costals -> push diaprgam further upward + faltten rib and sternum -> dec veritcal dimension of thoracic cavity + dec side-to-side and front-to-back dimension