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Protein Synthesis:

Translation & Transcription

Transcription Occurs in Cell's Nucleus
Transcription: #1. DNA in the Nucleus unravels and duplicates
Transcription: #2. The nucleotide Thymine (T) is changed into Uracil (U) on the duplicate strand.
Transcription: #3. Since DNA cannot leave the nucleus, the duplicate strand leaves the nucleus into the cytoplasm as mRNA.
Translation Occurs in the ribosomes on the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum in cytoplasm. The ribosome has two parts: a small and large subunit. The mRNA molecule binds to the small unit and tRNA attaches to the large subunit with a P site and an A site.
Translation: #1. mRNA binds to small subunit of ribosome.
Translation: #2 Initiator tRNA binds to start codon ("AUG") on mRNA. (The initiator tRNA has an anticodon and an amino acid.
Translation: #3. A functional ribosome is created when the large subunit attaches to the small subunit; translation begins.
Translation: #4. W/A
Translation: #5. The codon on the mRNA pairs w/ another tRNA that has an anticodon and an amino acid and they into the A site.
Translation: #6. A peptide bond is formed between the 2 amino acids in the A and P sites.
Translation: #7. The tRNA in the P site leaves and it amino acid detaches.
Translation: #8. The tRNA at the A site shifts over into the P site which allows a new tRNA with its anticodon and amino acid to bind at the A site.
Translation: #9. The amino acids continue to bind together as the mRNA continues shifting until a stop codon ("UAA", "UAG", (UGA") is reached in the A site
Translation: #10. The completed protein detaches from the final tRNA and travels to the Golgi Appartus to be processed and the ribosome splits back into the small and large subunits and the tRNAs return to the cytoplasm and they continue to their normal functions.
Created by: Bettiesailor



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