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BSC2085 1st Exam

Chapter 2 (1st Exam)

Matter Anything that takes up space and has mass
Mass Amount of material in matter; physical property that determines the weight of an object in Earth’s gravitational field
Atom Smallest stable unit of matter
Atoms are composed of these three subatomic particles Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
Protons Positive electrical charge
Neutrons Electrically neutral
Electrons Negative electrical charge
What is an atom's mass determined by? The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Atoms normally contain equal what? Protons and electrons
Atomic Number Number of protons in an atom
Element Pure substance composed of atoms of only one kind
Isotopes Atoms of the same element whose nuclei contain the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons
Mass Number The total number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus; is used to designate isotopes.
Radioisotopes Isotopes with unstable nuclei that spontaneously break down and emit subatomic particles of radiation in measurable amounts.
Radioactive Decay Breakdown process of radioisotopes
Half-Life Time required for half of a given amount of the isotope to decay
Atomic Weight Actual mass of an atom; expressed in atomic mass unit
Mole Quantity with a weight in grams equal to that element’s atomic weight
How many electrons can the 1st energy level hold? 2
How many electrons can the 2nd and 3rd energy levels hold each? 8
Valence Shell Outermost energy level forming the surface of the atom
What are atoms with unfilled energy levels? What do they do? Unstable and react with other atoms
Inert Elements don’t... Readily participate in chemical processes
Chemical Bonds Hold participating atoms together once the reaction has ended
Molecule Any chemical structure consisting of atoms held together by covalent bonds
Compound Pure chemical substances made up of atoms of two or more different elements, regardless of the type of bond joining them
When chemical bonding occurs it results in the creation of what new chemical entities? Molecules and Compounds
Ions Atoms or molecules that carry an electric charge, either positive or negative; have an unequal number of protons and electrons.
How do atoms become ions? By losing or gaining electrons
Cations Ions with a positive charge
Anions Ions with a negative charge
Ionic Bonds Chemical bonds created by the electrical attraction between anions and cations
Electron Donor Loses one or more electrons and becomes a cation with a positive charge
Electron Acceptor Gains electrons and becomes an anion with a negative charge
Covalent Bond Complete their outer electron shells by sharing electrons with other atoms
Nonpolar Covalent Bonds Covalent bonds involving an equal sharing of electrons
Polar Covalent Bonds Covalent bonds involving an unequal sharing of electrons
Free Radical An ion or molecule that contains unpaired electrons in its outermost energy levels
Surface Tension Act as a barrier that keeps small objects from entering the water
What are the three states of matter? Liquid, Gas, and Solid
Liquid Constant volume but no fixed shape
Solid Maintains volume and shape at ordinary temperatures and pressures
Gas Neither constant volume of fixed shape; will fill any container of any size
Molecular Weight The sum of the atomic weights of its component atoms
Metabolism All the reactions underway in the cells and tissues of the body at any given moment
Work Movement of an object or a change in the physical structure of matter
Energy Capacity to perform work; cannot be destroyed only converted
Kinetic Energy Energy of motion; energy that can be transferred to another object and perform work
Potential Energy Stored energy
Three types chemical reactions Decomposition reaction, synthesis reaction, and exchange reaction
Decomposition Reaction Breaks down the molecule into smaller fragments
What is (AB⟶ A+B) an example of? Decomposition Reactions
Hydrolysis one of the bonds in a complex Molecule is broken and the components of a water molecule are added to the resulting fragments
Catabolism The decomposition of complex molecules within the body’s cells and tissues
Synthesis Reaction The opposite of decomposition, assembles smaller molecules into larger molecules
What is A + B⟶AB an example of? Synthesis Reaction
Dehydration Synthesis The formation of a complex molecule by the removal of a water molecule
Anabolism The synthesis of new molecules within the body’s cells and tissues
Exchange Reactions Parts of the reacting molecules are shuffled around to produce new products
Activation Energy Amount of energy required to start a reaction
Enzymes Promote chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy requirements
Exergonic Reactions that release energy
Endergonic Reactions that absorb energy because more energy is required to begin the reaction
Nutrients Essential elements and molecules normally obtained from the diet
Metabolites All the molecules that can be synthesized or broken down by chemical reactions inside our bodies
Inorganic Generally don’t contain carbon and hydrogen atoms as their primary ingredients
Most important inorganic compounds in the body? Carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, and inorganic acids, bases, and salts
Organic Carbon and hydrogen always for the basis
Most important organic compounds in the body? Carbohydrates, proteins lipids, and nucleic acids
Properties of water Solubility, reactivity, high heat capacity, lubrication
Ionization Ionic bonds are broken down as the individual ions
Electrolytes Soluble inorganic molecules whose ions will conduct an electrical current in solution
Hydrophilic Compounds Molecules that interact readily with water molecules
Hydrophobic Compounds Molecules that do not interact readily with water molecules
Colloids Solution containing dispersed proteins and other large molecules; particles remain in solution indefinitely
Suspension Contains large particles in solution; if undisturbed, these particles will settle out of solution due to the force of gravity
More ions means ____ pH, less ions means _____ pH Lower, higher
pH scales range from... 0-14
Neutral pH of 7
Acidic pH below 7
Base pH above 7
pH of blood 7.35-7.45
pH of stomach acid 1
Acid Any solution that dissociates in solution and releases hydrogen ions, thereby lowering the pH
Base A solute that removes hydrogen ions from a solution and thereby acts as a protein acceptor
Salt An ionic compound containing any cation except a hydrogen ion, and any anion except a hydroxide ion.
Buffers Compounds that stabilize the pH of a solution by removing or replacing hydrogen ions
Carbohydrates An organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio
Monosaccharides Simple sugar; contains 3 to 7 carbon atoms
Name 2 Monosaccharides Glucose and Fructose
Disaccharides Two monosaccharides joined together
Name a disaccharides Sucrose
Polysaccharides Disaccharides with additional monosaccharides
Name 2 Polysaccharides Cellulose and Glycogen
Lipid Contain a carbon to hydrogen ratio of 1:2
Five classes of lipids Fatty acids,Eicosanoids,Glycerides, Steroids, and Phospholipids and Glycolipids
Fatty Acids Long carbon chains with hydrogen atoms attached
Eicosanoids Lipids derived from arachidonic acid, a fatty acid that must be absorbed in the diet because it cannot be synthesized by the body
Name two classes of eicosanoids leukotrienes and prostaglandins
Glycerides Individual fatty acids that can be attached to a modified simple sugar, glycerol
Triglycerides (glycerol + three fatty acids) have three functions Energy source, insulation, and protection
Steroid Large lipid molecules that share a distinctive carbon framework
Proteins Chains of amino acids; most abundant organic compounds
Essential functions of proteins Support, movement, transport, buffering, metabolic regulation, coordination and control, and defense
Amino Acid Long chain of organic molecules
A typical protein has ____ amino acids 100
Each amino acid consists of... A central carbon atom A hydrogen atom An amino group A carboxyl group An R Group
Peptide Bond A covalent bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another
Peptides Molecules consisting of amino acids held together by a peptide bond
4 levels of structural complexity Primary Structure-length of a single polypeptide Secondary Structure-simple spiral Tertiary Structure-coiling and folding Quaternary Structure
2 general structural classes on the basis of their overall shape and properties Fibrous Protein and Globular Protein
Fibrous Protein Form extended sheets or strands; usually the product of secondary structure
Globular Protein Compact, generally rounded; product of its tertiary structure
All enzymes share three basic characteristics Specificity Saturation Limits Regulation
Cofactor Ion or a molecule that must bind to the enzyme before substances can also bind
Nucleic Acids Large organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
2 classes of nucleic acid molecules DNA and RNA
Nucleotides Individual subunits of nucleic acids.
Each nucleotide has these three parts Pentose Phosphate group Nitrogenous base
5 nitrogenous bases exist in nucleic acids Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil
Both RNA and DNA have these three nitrogenous bases Adenine, guanine, and cytosine
RNA has this nitrogenouse base Uracil
DNA has this nitrogenouse base Thymine
Created by: CCriswell89