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T1 Patho-MReproDisFx

Male Repro Disorders - MCPHS-Manchester PharmD - Pathophysiology Test 1

what is the spongy layer of tissue called on the dorsal side of the penis corpora cavernosa
what is the spongy tissue on the ventral side of the penis called corpora spongiosum
the spongy tissue found c/i the penis is made up of what type of musc sm musc
the spongy tissue of the penis runs how much of the length thw whole length of the penis
the spongy tissue is composed of what? 3 BV, sm musc, lacunae
what type of membrane surrounds the spongy tissue of the penis fibrous membrane
an erection is what type of process a neurovascular process
erection is similar to when you touch a hot stove, in that it is a _____ reflex
which NS and nerve types innervates for an erection ANS via parasympthatic and somatic nerves
what type of receptors/stimuli are known to stim mechanoreceptors and visual stimulai
what NT is used for an erection ACh
ACh -> ________ (released) -> ______ -> ______ -> erection NO released ->sm musc relaxed -> blood flow into penis -> erection
endothelial ___ + ____ -> sm musc relax realxing -F + PG
which NS can O/R for Stimulation or inhibiting an erection CNS O/R ANS -> erection stim or inhibited
when blood flows into the penis via ______; _____ increases which _______ sm musc relaxation; pressure inc -> erection maintained
inc pressure -> ____ in and _____ out maintains blood in + prevents blood out
parasymp stimulation -> _____ (BV) relax + ____ (BV) contract -> maintains arterioles relax + veins contract -> bloood flow in + not out
___ ____ widens and legethens -> erection corpora cavernosa -> erection
SNS mediates ______ c/ erections ejaculation
SNS -> _______ of Male repro tract -> ejaculation strong contractions
frequent strong contractions of _____ (6)-> penis -> ejaculation epididymis -> vas deferens -> seminal vessicles -> prostate -> urethra -> penis -> ejaculation
vaigra P'cologic class and inhibition and stimulation of what adrenergic antagonist; inhibits symp and stimulates parasympathetic
the inability to ____ and _____ an erection sufficient to _____ = ____ & _____ dysFx Achieve and maintain; permit satisfactory sexual intercourse; erectile and ejaculatroy DysFx
the maj of ED suffers are how old > 50
what are the 2 main causes for ED? psychogenic & organic
what are ex's of psychogenic disorders that cx ED rltxshp issues, performance anxiety, depression, schizophrenia
what are the 4 sub-cat under the organic category for cx's of ED Neurogenic, Hormonal, Vascular, Drug-induced
what would be an ex of a organic-neurogenic cx of ED trauma, degenertive problems, parkinson's, peripheal neuropathy
What 2 hormones and at what levels can lead to ED dec TesT and High PRL
When PRL is high, what affect does it have on a man LT ED inhib FSH & LH prod
what class of drugs are known to be drug-induced cx's of ED anti-psychotics, anti-hypertensives, anti-depressives
why would a prob c/ the vascular sys cx ED penis ~90% vascular, athersclerosis and other Dec flow prob would inhib erection capability
BPH is an ___-related, ______ enlargement, of the _____ age, non-malignant, prostate
BPH is charac by the formation of ____ around the ____ (a.k.a. peri____) large, discrete lesions around the urethra (periurethral region)
T/F - BPH is aka Prostate CA, Y? F; prostatic CA = affects peripheral zones
what is cx of BPH unknown
which race has a high and which low percentage of BPH making it a risk-F African Ameri -H Jap -L
consumption of what is a risk-F for BPH dietary Fat and Meat
how are hormonal-F a risk for BPH lack/D of Test -> dec incidence
what affect does BPH have on the urinary sys applies pressure to the urethra -> urinary hesitation, strain, dribbling, difficult to void urinary bladder
S&S of BPH include what?3 weak urination c/ post void dribbling, freq urination of sm amts, urinating at night whil asleep
digital flow exams, urine flow studies, PSAg for screening are all diagnosing procedures for what? BPH
Tx for BPH includes 3 self-care, medication, surgery
Complications c/ BPH include 2 CA and urinary tract inFx
what is the most common non-skin CA in the US prostate CA
second to lung CA is what CA-related death in men in teh US prostate CA
____ have the highest incidence of prostate CA; Jap and NAmer have the lowest prostate CA
over the maj of prostate CA diagnosed are in men of what age > 65
what is the etiology of prostate CA unknown
how is prostate CA assoc c/ heredity 8x > chance if primary relative has prostate CA
dieatary consumption of what is a risk-F for prostate CA dietary fat and red meat
what hormones are assoc as a risk-F for prostate CA Test and Est (mitogens)
why is finasteride particulary succ in Prostate CA Tx inhibits the conversion of Test to di-H2O-TesT
what P-cologic class of Ax does finasteride have chemoprevent by inhibiting 5-alpha-reductase
consumption of what is known to be a protective-F agains prostate CA 3 lycopene, selenium, Vit E
there is a red risk assoc c/ prostate CA in men who lack what other prostate abnormality BPH
98% of primary prostatic CA arewhat type adenocarinoma
what tissue and where is the adenocarcinoma assoc c/ prostate CA found glandular tissue of epithelial cells; outer portion of prostate
by location only, how is BPH diff from prostate CA in where it forms BPH-around urethra, Prostate CA - outer portion of prostate
which type of CA is assoc c/ being present in the periphery of the prostate prostate CA
which type of prostate abnormality is a type of CA classified as multicentric prostate CA
BPH or porstate CA is knwon to metastsis and where prostate CA to lung and bone
what symptoms of prostate CA are present initially none, asymptomatic
when syx develop indicated prostate CA, what can be determined about the CA locally advanced or metastasis
which cyotkine of prostate CA is assoc c/ weight lossand anemia, y? TNF-a b/c it is a cachexin and inhibits RBC production
what CA is assoc c/ low-back pain, fractures indicativ of bone metastasis, weight loss, anemia, and SOB, is present in a lg maj of men >65 prostate CA
BPH could be confused c/ prostae CA in that they both have what similar syx prostate CA may change voiding patters, depends on size and location
PSAg is used to scree for what CA BPH and Prostate CA
how is the diagnosis procedure diff for BPH than for porstate CA prostate CA msurs PSAg over time for increases to indicate CA
how is prostate CA diagnosis confirmed biopsy
what is the Tx for BPH vs. Prostate CA BPH - medication vs. Prostate CA - surgery, chemo, hormone manipulation
what is defined as the inability to concieve a child after _____ of _____ infertility; 1 yr, unprotected sex
what is the diff b/w primary vs. secondary infertility primary - no prior conception, secondary - infertiltiy after one or more succ pregnancies
M or F have a higher chance of being infertile more W than M are infertile
F diagnosis of infertility differs from M in that F have what (2), both ____ 1, men have ___ 1 pelvic exam and menstral history, both undergo lab tests, men undergo a physical
almost _____ of infertility is unexplained 25%
how might a men be infertile c/ his sperm lack sperm completely or have a low sperm count
no sperm prod at all is ____ vs. low sperm count is ____ azoospermia vs. oligospermia
what are cx's of sperm disorders LT infertility smking, drinking, medication,
immunoloigic disorders LT male infertility is when the male ____ during sperm prod an Ab is present against
what might cx the man to have an Ab present during sperm prod 3 trauma (BTB compromised), surgery, inFx
How can hormones can influ male fertiltiy lack of or too much due to Hypo-Ant Pit-Testis Axis malFx
hereditry abnormalitties are known to cx male infertiltiy by _____ inhereiting damaged DNA c/i sperm LT miscarriage b/c developmt couldnt proceed with male portion
what is an ex of a stuructural abnormality LT M infertiltiy obstruction
what in the M repro tract could cx an obstruction LT a structural abnormality 2 enlarged prostate or testicular torsion
give 2 ex of congenital abnormalities assoc c/ M infertiltiy cryptorchidism and hypospadias
how might the BV contribute to male infertiltiy varicocele
what surgery is commonly performed that LT infertility vasectomy
which type of CA assoc c/ the prostate has a higher chance of causing infertility by creating an obstruction BPH
testicular torsion is classified as what type of infertility struc abnormality
testicular torsion is explained as what twisting of the vas deferens from the tissue not being properly attached to the testis
testicular torsion if not corrected can cx what death of the testis b/c of lack of bloof flow
what congenital abnormality is common in pre-mature infants cryptorchidism
what is a condition leading to infertility from the lack of the testis descendig from the abdominal cavity through the inguinal canal cryptorchidism
when do the tesis normally descend from the abd cavity 3 mo post birth
how is cryptochordism Txt surgery and HRT
what happens to sperm prod in an undescedned testis and why lack of sperm production b/c env to hot
what has a high incidence assoc c/ testicular torsion and CA cryptochordism
what condition is a congenital defect where the opening of the urethra doesn't reach the tip of the penis hypospadias
where does the opening of the urethra end in hypospadias newhere along the ventral side of the penis
what is the Tx for hypospadias? surdery c/ foreskin 6-12 mo post birth
what is a condition of the M LT infertility in which the veins of the testis begin to enlarge varicoelle
why would varicolle LT infertiltiy Neg impact on testicular Fx
how is varicocele Tx jock strap or surgery
how does varicocelle impact Testicular Fx change temp creating an unoptimal env for sperm production
how common is varicocelle a reason for M infertilti highest (esp 15 - 35 YOA)