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Bio110 Chapter 1

Terms and definitions for Organization & General Plan of the Body

The simplest level of organization Chemical Level
Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins & Nucleic Acids are_____________ Chemicals Organic
Water, Oxygen & Carbon dioxide are ____________ Chemicals Inorganic
The most complex level of organization Organ Systems
The smallest living units of structure and function Cells
A group of cells with similar structure and function Tissue
The study of body structure Anatomy
The study of disorders of functions Pathophysiology
What type of tissue covers or lines body surfaces, some are capable of producing secretions. Epithelial Tissue
What type of tissue connects and supports parts of the body Connective Tissue
What type of tissue specializes in contractions to bring about movement Muscle Tissue
What type of tissue is specialized to generate and transmit electrochemical impulses Nerve Tissue
A group of tissue precisely arranged as to accomplish a specific function Organ
All the chemical reactions and physical processes that take place within the body to bring about growth, repair, reactions, and reproduction. Metabolism
Organ system responsible for movement Muscle System
System responsible for body structure Skeletal System
System responsible for electrochemical impulses and sensory information interpretation Nervous System
System that is a barrier to pathogens and chemicals and prevents excessive water loss Integumentary System
System responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and the blood Respiratory System
System responsible for providing immunity and returning tissue fluid to the blood Lymphatic System
System responsible for removal of wastes from the blood and regulation of volume and pH of blood and tissue fluid Urinary System
System that changes food into simple chemicals that can be absorbed and used by the body Digestive System
The system that regulates body functions such as growth, metabolism and reproduction through hormones Endocrine System
The system that produces egg or sperm Reproductive System
A state of relative stability within the body Homeostasis
The Mechanism in the body that reverses a stimulus to keep the body within a normal range Negative Feedback Mechanism
A mechanism in the body that keeps a stimulus sequence of events going Positive Feedback Mechanism
Normal body temperature range is 97-99 F
Normal pulse rate 60-80 beats per minute
Normal respiratory rate 12-20 breaths per minute
Antebrachial Forearm
Antecubital Front of elbow
Axillary Armpit
Brachial Upper arm
Buccal Cheek
Cardiac Heart
Cervical Neck
Cranial Head
Cutaneous Skin
Deltoid Shoulder
Femoral Thigh or upper leg
Frontal Forehead
Gastric Stomach
Gluteal Buttocks
Hepatic Liver
Iliac Ilium (pelvis)
Inguinal Front of hip joint
Lumbar Lower back
Mammary Breast
Nasal Nose
Occipital Back of skull
Orbital Eye
Parietal Top of head
Patellar Knee cap
Pectoral Chest
Perineal Pelvic floor
Plantar Sole of foot
Popliteal Back of knee
Pulmonary Lungs
Renal Kidney
Sacral Base of spine
Temporal Sides of head
Umbilical Navel
Volar Palm of hand
Superior Above or higher
Inferior Below or lower
Anterior Toward the front
Posterior Toward the back
Ventral Toward the front
Dorsal Toward the back
Medial Toward the midline
Lateral Away from midline
Internal Inside, Within, Interior to
External Outside, Exterior to
Superficial Toward the surface
Deep Within, interior to
Central The main part
Peripheral Extending from the main part
Proximal Closer to the origin
Distal Farther from the origin
Parietal Pertaining to the wall of a cavity
Visceral Pertaining to the organs within a cavity
2 main Body Cavities Dorsal and Ventral
The 2 cavities within the Dorsal Cavity Cranial Cavity and Spinal Cavity
The 3 cavities within the Ventral Cavity Thoracic Cavity, Abdominal Cavity, and the Pelvic Cavity
What separates the Thoracic Cavity from the Abdominal Cavity Diaphragm
Lines the Chest Wall Parietal Pleura
Covers the Lungs Visceral Pleura
Lines the pericardial sac Parietal Pericardial Membrane
Covers the heart Visceral Pericardial Sac
Thoracic cavity contains Heart and Lungs
Cranial Cavity contains The Brain
Spinal Cavity contains The spinal cord, and meninges
Abdominal Cavity contains Liver, Stomach, Intestines etc.
Lines the abdominal wall Peritoneum
Continuation of Peritoneum that covers abdominal organs Mesentery
Pelvic Cavity contains Bladder, reproductive organs, colon, and rectum
What is a Section Cut of a body part
What is a plane Imaginary flat surface that separates 2 portions of the body
Frontal (Coronal) Section separates the body into- Anterior and Posterior
Sagittal Section separates the body into- Left and Right
Transverse section separates the body into- Upper and Lower
Cross-section is a plane perpendicular to the long axis of a struture
Longitudinal section is a plane along the long axis of a structure
The four quadrants are Right Upper Quadrant(RUQ), Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ), Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ), and Lower Left Quadrant (LLQ)
What is Metabolic Rate The amount of energy and heat production per unit of time
The Study of body functions Physiology
The level with the smallest Living unit Cellular
The name of the position described as Standing upright, facing forward arms at sides with palms forward and feet slightly apart Anatomic Position
Created by: pamela0116



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