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Chapter 29-Late Cold

Brezhnev Leader of the Soviet Union, 1964-1982.
"Guns or Butter" When a country has to choose between spending its money on defense or consumer goods. When Ronald Reagan was increasing defense spending in the 1980s, the Soviet Union was forced to choose between military spending or civilian spending.
Czechoslavkia, 1968 This Soviet invasion was a response to the policy of "socialism with a human face", a liberal reform movement beagan by Alexander Dubcek. Soviet troops put an end to the "Prague Spring" by use of force. Prompted the declaration of the Brezhnev Doctrine.
Brezhnev Doctrine After ordering troops into Czehoslovakia, Brezhnev stated that the USSR has a duty to intervene in any other communist state to maintain communist control.
Lech Walesa A Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist. He co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995.
Solidarity A Polish trade union founded in September 1980, and originally led by Lech Wałęsa. In the 1980s it was a broad anti-communist social movement. After 1989, a coalition government was formed and in December Wałęsa was elected president.
Detente The easing of tensions by the two super powers during the 1970's. Examples: Brandt's Ostpolitik, SALT I, Helsinki Accords and Nixon's visit to China in 1972.
SALT I An agreement reached during the Detente Era that linited the amount of anti-ballistic missiles both superpowers had.
Helsinki Accords, 1975 An agreement made in the Detente era that recongized all 1945 European borders in exchange for a Soviet comminment to improve human rights behind the Iron Curtain.
"ping-pong diplomacy" The cultural exchange of ping pong players of the United States and People's Republic of China (PRC) in the 1970s. This marked a thaw in U.S.-China relations that led the way to a visit to Beijing by President Richard Nixon. Part of the Detente era.
Nixon vists China, 1972 The first step in formally normalizing relations between the United States and the People's Republic of China. It also marked the first time a U.S. president had visited the PRC. Part of the Detente era.
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, 1979 This action drew harsh criticism from many countries and effectively ended the period of Detente. SALT II was cancelled, the Moscow Olympics were boycotted and the Soviets found themselves in their own Vietnam.
Boycott of Moscow Olympics, 1980 Was a part of a package of actions to protest against the December 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
Ronald Reagan President of the US from 1981-1989. He initiated the SDI or Star Wars program that eventually bankrupted the USSR and led to the fall of communism.
Vietnam War A military conflict in occurring from 1959 to April 30, 1975. It was an attempt to stop the spread of Communism in Asia.
French Indo-China Part of the French colonial empire in southeast Asia, consisting of the present day countries of Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. French rule was ended by the Geneva Agreement, 1954.
Ho Chi Minh Leader of the North Vietnamese in their fight against French colonial rule, 1946-1954 and against the Americans in Vietnam.
Dein Bien Phu, 1954 The site of a major battle between the French and the Communist forces in Vietnam. As a result of losing this battle the French withdraw from French -Indo China.
Ho Chi Minh Trail A complex maze of truck routes, paths for foot and bicycle traffic, and river transportation systems used to provide support, in the form of manpower and material, to the Vietcong during the Vietnam War. It ran through the countries of Laos and Cambodia.
Geneva Agreement, 1954 The agreement that officially ended French involvement in Vietnam and created four new countries: North Vietnam, South Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos.
Domino Theory A term used by the Americans meaning that if a country became Communist, then its neighbouring countries would likewise fall to communism, like a row of dominoes. This theory was the basis of the American involvement in Vietnam.
Gulf of Tonkin Incident, 1964 A US destroyer was supposedly attacked by North Vietnamese torpedo boats. Johnson used this incident to get legislation passed which allowed him a free hand in dealing with the Vietnam conflict and led to US troop involvement.
Lyndon Johnson Became president of the United States after the assassination of JFK. Attempted to implement reforms in the US called his "Great Society". Deeply involved in the Vietnam War. Sent US troops into Vietnam after the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was passed.
Tet Offensive A tactical defeat for the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese forces, but it inflicted severe damage on American civilian morale and contributed to the demand for the withdrawal of American forces from Vietnam.
Richard Nixon American President from 1968-1974. Ended the war in Vietnam with his policy of Vietnamization, became the first US president to visit communist China and resigned rather than face impeachment after the Watergate Scandal.
Vietnamization Nixon's plan to withdraw from Vietnam by gradually building up the strength of the South Vietnamese armed forces, and to re-equip them with modern weapons so that they could defend their nation on their own.
MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction) A Cold War term meaning that there was safety in both the US and the USSR possessing large nuclear arsenals as neither would use its arsenal for fear of retaliation. If either side attacked it would lead to the destruction of the world.
"Star Wars" or SDI Proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan in 1983 to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. One factor in the fall of communism as the USSR could not keep up financially.
The Great Society President Johnson's domestic policy, which included improved living conditions for the poor, civil rights, educational reforms, and urban renewal. Many of his aims were not achieved because of the Vietnam War's drain on government finances.
Civil Rights Movement A movement in the 1950's and 1960's which attempted to bring equal voting, education, employment to blacks in the United States.
Mikhail Gorbachev Leader of the Soviet Union from 1985-1991. His policies of Glasnost and Perestroika brought on political and economic change that ended up bringing down both the Communist Party and the Soviet Union itself.
Glasnost A policy started by Gorbachev that allowed "openness" in the Soviet Union. For the first time under communism people were allowed to express their true feelings. One of the factors that leads to the fall of communism.
Perestroika A Russian word meaning "restructuring". One of Gorbachev's plans that lead to the fall of communism and the end of the USSR.
Boris Yeltsin Was the first President of the Russian Federation from 1991 to 1999 after the end of Communism.
Chernobyl Disaster A nuclear power station near Kiev, in the Ukraine. In 1986 a reactor malfunctioned, resulting in large amounts of radioactive material being released into the atmosphere. The effects locally were devastating and were felt as far away as the Britain.
Fall of Berlin Wall Was dismantled in the weeks following November 9, 1989. It was an iconic symbol of the Cold War. This was the first step toward German reunification and symbolized the end of the iron curtain and communism in eastern Europe.
Ostpolitik German Reunification. Eleven months after the fall of the Berlin Wall, East and West Germany joined to form one country.
Collapse of the Soviet Union, 1991 Caused by Gorbachev's policies of glasnost and peristroika as well as the advent of mass communications.
Willi Brandt His "ostpolitik" (policy towards the Eastern Bloc" resulted in treaties with the Soviet Union, Poland and East Germany that recognized the post-1945 borders. He began the first step toward German Unification.
Created by: alfromcanada