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A&P 1 - Tissue

VET 1200 - Tissues!

QuestionAnswer
Epithelial tissue is composed of...and its main job is... entirely cells ...to COVER THE BODY
Epithelial tissue forms... GLANDS ((structures that secrete useful substances and excrete waste))
What are the 4 types of tissue? Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, and Nervous
Connetive tissue is composed of...and its main job is... cells and intercellular tissue (FIBERS); holds body together and GIVES SUPPORT
Three types of specialized connective tissue are Blood, Bone, and Cartilage
Muscle tissue is responsible for.. movement of the body (inside and out)
The three types of muscle tissue are... Skeletal, Smooth, and Cardiac
Skeletal muscles do what? Moves bone under conscious nervous system control
Smooth muscles do what? Under "automatic" (involuntary) control, responsible for peristalsis (digestive and urinary tract)
Cardiac Muscles do what? maintains heart function - involuntary
Nervous tissue does what? transmits information around the body and controls body funtion
Cell layers are referred to as either ______ or ________ *Simple (little protection to underlying tissue, single layer) *Stratified (thick, multi-layered)
Cells can be ________-,___________, or ________ shaped. Squamous, cuboidal, or columnar
This type of epithelial cell APPEARS to be stratified, however it is actually simple PSEUDOstratified Columnar
Nervous tissue cells are called ________ Neurons
The three parts of a neuron are the ________, ________, and the ________. What are their funtions? Perikaryon (cell body; nucleus), dendrites (short, cytoplasmic extentions; RECEIVE impulses), and axons (long, single extention; conducts impulses AWAY from the cell body).
Neuroglial cells support the neurons
Each epithelial cell has a _______ surface, and a ________ surface. Basal, apical
The apical surface faces the... Lumen; or outside of the organ
The basal surface faces the... basal lamina and blood vessels
Functions of epithelial cells/tissues are: Hint: A - S&E ABSORB nutrients, manufacture SECRETIONS (within the body) and EXCRETIONS (remove from the body)
Epithelial tissues also P - F - R PROTECT underlying tissues, FILTER biochemical substances, and RECEPTION of sensory input
_________ surfaces are connected to neighboring cells by ________________ _______________ LATERAL surfaces are connected to neighboring cells by JUNCTIONAL COMPLEXES
TRUE or FALSE Epithelial cells are avascular TRUE Epithelial cells ARE avascular
TRUE OR FALSE Most epithelial cells are innervated TRUE Mose epithelial cells are innervated
Cellular attachment Three types of cellular juntions are: Tight junctions, Desmosomes, Gap juntions
Tight Junctions are found in tissues where there can be no leaks, such as in the_________ and __________ tract urinary bladder and digestive tract
Tight junctions: are mechanical coupling formed by __________ that ____________ with one another formed by MICROFILAMENTS that INTERLOCK with one another
Desmosomes - Tonofilaments extend from the plaque into the cytoplasm. Found in tissues that undergo repeated episodes of __________ and _________ (such as skin, heart, uterus) STRETCHING and TENSION
Hemidesmosones link ____________ cells to the __________ membrane. EPITHELIAL cells to the BASEMENT membrane
Gap Junctions are Tubular channel proteins, also known as: Connexons - Which extend from the cytoplasm of one cell to the cytoplasm of another cell
Connexons allow the exchange and passage of ___ and ________ IONS and NUTRIENTS
Gap junctions are found in intestinal _________ cells, the _______, and _____ muscle tissue. Gap junctions are found in intestinal EPITHELIAL cells, the HEART, and SMOOTH muscle tissue.
Basement membranes are also called __________ __________. Basement membranes are also called BASAL LAMINA
Basement membranes: are a meshwork of fibers that cements the ________ cells to the underlying ___________ tissue. Fiber that cements the EPITHELIAL cells to the underlying CONNECTIVE tissue.
TRUE or FALSE: Basement membranes vary in thickness TRUE - Basement membranes vary in thickness
Basement membranes help prevent the cell from being torn off by __________ __________. Basement membranes help prevent the cell from being torn off by INTRALUMINAL PRESSURE.
Basement membranes act as a parietal barrier between the ___________ cells and the underlying ___________ tissue. Act as a parietal barrier between the EPITHELIAL cells and the underlying CONNECTIVE tissue.
The apical surface faces the outside, or _________ of the organ. The apical surface faces the outside, or LUMEN of the organ.
Surfaces of epithelial cells vary depending on where they are located and what roll they play in the function of the tissue; possible surface types are: (4 types) Microvilli (brush border - increases surface area) Cilia, Keratin (waterproof), and Smooth (blood vessels)
Epithelial tissue can have two layer classifications, which are: Simple and Stratified
What are the three types of shapes of epithelial cells? Squamous, cuboidal, and columnar
How can you tell if a layer is pseudostratified columnar? By the location of the nulei
Simple Squamous are flat and smooth, fragile and thin, and are found in __________ surfaces LINING surfaces
Simple squamous cells are involved in the passage of either ___ or ______ (ex. alveoli) Simple squamous cells are involved in the passage of either GAS or LIQUID
Simple Cuboidal cells are a _______ layer of ____ shaped cells simple cuboidal cells are a SINGLE layer of CUBE shaped cells
Simple cuboidal cells have ______, dark staining nuclei aligned in a ______ row. Simple cuboidal cells have a ROUND, dark-staining nuclei aligned in a SINGLE row.
Simple cuboidal cells occur in areas of the body where s________ and a_________ take place (ex. ovaries, kidney, liver) Simple cuboidal cells occur in areas of the body where SECRETION and ABSORPTION take place.
Simple columnar are e________ and closely packed together. Simple columnar are ELONGATED and tightly packed together.
Unlike pseudostratified columnar, simple columnar nuclei are aligned in a ___ at the base of the cell, near the basement membrane. Simple columnar nuclei are aligned in a ROW at the base of the cell, near the basement membrane
Simple columnar cells are found in many e________ ducts as well as the d________ tract. found in many EXCRETORY ducts as well as the DIGESTIVE tract.
Goblet cells secret m____ in the gut. Goblet cells secret MUCUS in the gut.
Stratified Squamous cells are _____ layered. Stratified squamous cells are MULTIlayered (stratified = thick = many layers)
Stratified squamous cells are found in regions of the body that are subject to m________ and c________ stress. (ex. esophagus, rectum, vagina) stratified squamous cells are subject to MECHANICAL and CHEMICAL stress
Stratified Squamous cells p______ underlying tissue Stratified squamous cells PROTECT underlying tissue.
Stratified cuboidal are usually found in t__ layers TWO layer
Stratified cuboidal are found primarily along large e________ glands (ex. sweat, mammary glands. Stratified cuboidal are found primarily along large EXCRETORY glands, such as SWEAT and MAMMARY glands.
Stratified columnar cells are r___, and only in select parts of the r__________, d_______, and r___________ systems. stratified columnar cells are RARE and found in select parts of the RESPIRATORY, DIGESTIVE, and REPRODUCTIVE systems.
Stratified columnar cells main function is in s________ and p________. SECRETION and PROTECTIONS.
Pseudocolumnar are "false" s_________ False stratified
How can you differentiate between pseudostratified columnar and simple columnar? Pseudocolumnar will have non-uniform nuclei locations, as simple columnar nuclei will be lined up in a row.
Some pseudostratified columnar cells will not reach the ______ surface. LUMINAL
pseudostratified columnar cells are found in the r__________ tract, and in portions of the male r___________ tract RESPIRATORY tract and portions of the male REPRODUCTIVE tract.
Transitional epithelium is also called s_______ epithelium, with a basal layer of c_______ or c_______ cells. stratified epithelium, with a basal layer of cuboidal or columnar cells.
Transitional epithelium cells are found in areas of the body required to e_____ and c_______, as part of their normal function (ex. bladder) EXPAND and CONTRACT
Glandular Epithelia consists of what two types of gland? ENDOcrine and EXOcrine
Endocrine glands ___ have a duct Endocrine glands DO NOT have a duct
Exocrine glands ____ have a duct Exocrine glands DO have a duct
Glands that do not have ducts or tubules and whose secretions are distributed throughout the body are known as: ENDOcrine glands
Glands that discharge secretions via ducts directly into local areas are known as: EXOcrine glands
This gland produces and secretes hormones into the bloodstream or the lymphatic system. Endocrine glands produce and secrete hormones into the bloodstream and lymphatic system.
This gland produces enzymes, and can also be uni OR multi cellular Exocrine glands produce enzymes, as well as be uni or multi-cellular.
The goblet cell is the only ___crine gland that does NOT have a duct, they are also unicellular. The goblet cell is the only EXOcrine gland that does NOT have a duct.
Goblet cells secrete m____ and proteoglycans (ie. mucus) Goblet cells secrete MUCIN
Goblet cells are ductless and composed of modified c_______ epithelial cells. Columnar epithelial cells.
Goblet cells are only found among c_______ cells of the respiratory and digestive tract, as well as the conjunctiva of the eye. Goblet cells are only found among COLUMNAR cells.
Ducts: Simple: main duct that is ________ Compound: main duct that is _______ Simple duct: UNbranched Compound duct: Branched
Two shapes of secretory portions: T_______: secretory cells form a long channel of EVEN WIDTH TUBULAR: long channel of even width
A_______ OR A_____: secretory unit forms a ROUNDED SAC Alveolar or Acinar: secretory unit forms a rounded sac
These secretory units possess both _______ and _______ qualities Tubuloalveolar or Tubuloacinar secretory units possess both tubular and alveolar qualities.
Exocrine gland produce two types of secretions: M_____ secretions and S_____ secretions Exocrine glands produce Mucous secretions and Serous secretions.
Serous secretions are _______ in consistency, and contain a high concentration of _______ Serous secretions are WATERY and contain a high concentration of ENZYMES.
Mucous secretions are _______ and _______ in consistency, and are composed of _____________. Mucous secretions are THICK and VISCOUS, and are made of GLYCOPROTEINS
Mixed exocrine glands contain both ______ and ______ components. mucous and serous
Merocrine glands package their secretions and release them via __________ as they are manufactured Merocrine gland package their secretions and release them via EXOCYTOSIS
Apocrine glands STORE their secretions and then _______ the TOP PART of the cell into the duct system Apocrine glands store their secretions and then RELEASE the top part of the cell into the duct system; therefore LOSING the top portion of the cell.
Holocrine glands store their secretions and then release the _______ contents of the cell Holocrine glands store their secretions and then release the ENTIRE contents of the cell (Holo- = all)
Connective Tissue is the ____ ________ type of tissue by weight connective tissue is the MOST ABUNDANT tissue by weight.
Connective tissue forms metabolic and s_______ connections between other tissues Con tissue forms STRUCTURAL connections between other tissues
Connective tissue forms a _______ sheath around organs and helps i_______ the body Con tissue forms a PROTECTIVE sheath around organs and helps INSULATE the body
Connective tissue acts as a reserve for e____ ENERGY
Connective tissue provides the f_____ that s______ the body Con tissue provides the FRAME that SUPPORTS the body
Connective tissue composes the medium that t________ substances from one region of the body to another Con tissue provides the medium that TRANSPORTS substances around the body
___________ tissue plays a role in the h______ process in the body and controls m____________ CONNECTIVE tissue plays a role in the HEALING process; controls MICROORGANISMS
Connective tissue is composed of Extracellular m_____; which are nonliving, and c_____; which are living. extracellular MATRIX (nonliving), and CELLS (living)
Extracellular Matrix is composed of extracellular f______ and g_____ substances E. Matrix is composed of FIBERS and GROUND substances
The three types of living connective tissue cells are f_____ cells, w________ cells, and m___ cells. FIXED, WANDERING, and MAST cells
The three types of extracellular fibers are _____________ (white fibers, _____________ (yellow fibers), and _________ fibers. Collagenous fibers (white), Elastic fibers (yellow), and Reticular fibers,
Collagenous fibers (white) are t_____ stand of c_______ White fibers are THICK stands of COLLAGEN.
Collagen fibers are organized into bundles of long, p______ fibrils composed of bundled micro_______ Collagen fibers are organized into bundles of long, PARALLEL fibril composed of bundled microFIBRILS
Collagen fiber can be found in t______ and l________ Collagen (white) fibers can be found in TENDONS and LIGAMENTS
Elastic fibers (yellow) are b_______ networks composed of the protein e______ Elastic fibers (yellow) are BRANCHED networks composed of the protein ELASTIN
Elastic fibers are composed of coiled bundles of m_________ elastic fibers are composed of coiled bundles of MICROFIBRILS
Elastic fibers are found in tissue subjected to s_______ (ex. vocal cords, lungs, skin, wall of blood vessels) Elastic fibers are found in tissue subjteced to STRETCHING
Reticular fibers are t___, delicate, branched networks of c_______ Reticular fibers are THIN, networks of COLLAGEN.
Reticular fibers provide support for highly c______ organs (endocrine glands, lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, liver) Reticular fibers provide support for highly CELLULAR organs
Ground substances DO/DO NOT have a nucleus? Ground substances DO NOT have a nucleus
Ground substances are the medium to which cells exchange n_________ and w____ with the bloodstream Ground substances: allow cells to exchange NUTRIENTS and WASTE with the blood stream.
TRUE or FALSE Ground substances are amorphhus, homogeneous material TRUE - Ground substances are amorphous, homogeneous materials.
Ground substances range in texture from l_____ or g__ to a calcified s_____ Liquid or gel to a calcified solid.
Ground substances serve as an effective obstacle for invading m___________ microorganisms
F______ cells are involved in the production and maintenance of the matrix of: Adipocytes, reticular cells, oseoblasts, chondroblasts, and fibroblasts FIXED cells are involved in the production and maintenance of adipocytes, reticular cells, osteoblasts, chondroblasts, and fibroblasts.
W________ cells are involved in the repair and protections of WBC, microphages, and Mast cells WANDERING cells : leukocytes, microphages, mast cells
M____ cells are oval shaped, contain h_________ and h______; initiate the inflammatory response MAST cells are oval shaped, conain HISTAMINE and HEPARIN;
Areolar, reticular, and adipose tissue are all L______ connective tissue Areolar, reticular, and adipose tissue are all LOOSE connective tissues
D____ connective tissue is tightly packed arrangements of collagen fibers DENSE connective tissue is tightly packed arrangements of collagen fibers
The three types of dense connective tissue are: (hint) D.R; D.I; E Dense regular, dense irregular, elastic
Areolar Connective tissue is L_____ connective tissue, Loose
Created by: ahaggan001