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Endocrine Syst. Ch13

Endocrine System

QuestionAnswer
acromegaly chronic metabolic condition characterized by gradual, noticeable enlargement and elongation of the bones of the face, jaw, & extremities due to oversecretion of the pituitary gland after puberty
adenohypophysis anterior pituitary gland
adrenocortical pertaining to the cortex of the adrenal gland
androgen steroid hormone, increases male characteristics
cortex pertaining to the outer region of an organ or structure
cretinism congenital condition. characterized by dwarfism, slowed mental development, puffy facial features, dry skin, and large tongue
diabetes, insipidus metabolic disorder characterized by extreme polydipsia & polyuria
diabetes mellitus disorder of the pancreas in which the beta cells of the islets of langerhans of the pancreas fail to produce an adequate amount of insulin
endocrine gland ductless gland that produces a chemical substance called a hormone, secreted directly into the bloodstream
endocrinologist physician who specialized in the medical practice of treating the disease and disorders of the endocrine system
endocrinology field of medicine that deals with the study of the endocrine system
estrogen female hormones that promotes the development of female secondary sex characteristics
euthyroid pertaining to a normally functioning thyroid gland
exophthalmia abnormal condition characterized by a marked outward protrusion of the eyeballs
glucagon hormone secreted by the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas that stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose
glucogenesis formation of glycogen from fatty acids and proteins instead of carbohydrates
glucose simplest form of sugar in the body
glycogenesis conversion of excess glucose into glycogen for storage in the liver for later use as needed
glycosuria presence of sugar in the urine
graves disease hyperthyroidism
hypercalcemia elevated blood calcium level
hyperglycemia elevated blood sugar level
hypergonadism excessive activity of the ovaries or testes
hyperinsulinism excessive amount of insulin in the body
hyperkalemia elevated blood potassium level
hypernatremia elevated blood sodium level
hyperparathyroidism hyperactivity of any of the four parathyroid glands
hyperthyrodism overactivity of the thyroid gland: Graves Disease
hypocalcemia less than normal blood calcium level
hypoglycemia less than normal blood sugar level
hypokalemai less than normal blood potassium level
hyponatremia less than normal blood sodium level
hypothyroidism less than normal activity in the thyroid gland; extremely low body metabolism
insulin shock state of shock due to extremely low blood sugar level
medulla internal part of a structure or organ
metabolism sum of all physical and chemical processes that take place within the body
myxedema most severe form of hypothyroidism. characterized by puffiness of the hands and face
oxytocin hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. stimulates the contractions of the uterus during childbirth
polydipsia excessive thirst
polyphagia excessive eating
polyuria excretion of excessively large amounts of urine
progesterone female hormone secreted by the ovaries
somatotropic hormone hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that regulates the cellular processes necessary for normal body growth: Growth Hormone
syndrome group of symptoms occurring together
tetany severe cramping and twitching of the muscles and sharp flexion of the wrist and ankle joints
thyroiditis inflammation of the thyroid gland
virilism development of masculine physical traits in the female
dwarfism growth retardation of the body due to the deficiency of the human growth hormone: hypopituitarism
gigantism proportional overgrowth of the bodys tissue due to the hypersecretion of the human growth hormone before puberty
goiter (simple) hyperplasia of the thyroid gland
thyroiditis, chronic chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland
thyroid storm acute, sometimes fatal, incident of overactivity of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive secretion of thyroid hormone
Addison's disease life threatening disease process due to failure of the adrenal cortex to secrete adequate mineralocorticoids and glucocoricoids
Cushing's Syndrome cluster of symptoms occurring as a result of an excessive amount of cortisol or ACTH circulating in the blood
diabetic retinopathy disorder of the blood vessels of the retina of the eye, experience bulging, hemorrhages, leakage, and scarring
pancreatic cancer life threatening primary malignant neoplasm typically found in the head of the pancreas
pancreatitis acute or chronic destructive inflammatory condition of the pancreas
fasting blood sugar (FBS) blood glucose sample taken usually early in the morning after the person has been without food or drink since midnight
glucose tolerance test (GTT) test that evaluates the persons ability to tolerate a concentrated oral glucose load by measuring the glucose levels
hemoglobin A1C Test (HgbA1C) shows the average level of glucose in an individuals blood during the last 3 months
serum glucose tests measure the amount of glucose in the blood at the time of the sample was drawn
thyroid function test measure the blood levels of the hormones T3, T4, and TSH
thyroid scan determines the position, size, shape, and physiological function of the thyroid gland through the use of the radionuclear scanning
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) measures the concentration of TSH in the blood
Created by: asmaba08