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AR Chap 13

Endocrine System

acromegaly enlargement and elongation of the bones of the face, jaw, and extremities
adenohypophysis anterior pituitary gland
adenopathy any disease of a gland. characterized by enlargement
adrenocortical pertaining to the cortex of the adrenal gland(s)
androgen steriod, increases male characteristics
cortex outer region of an organ
cretinism congenital. characterized by dwarfism, slowed mental development, puffy facial features, dry skin, and large tongue
diabetes insipidus metabolic disorder. extreme polydipsia and polyuria. due to deficiency in secretion of the antidiurectic hormone.
diabetes mellitus disorder of the pancreas in which beta cells of the islets of Langerhans fail to produce an adequate amount of insulin. inability to appropriately metabolize charbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
endocrine gland ductless gland. secreted directly into the bloodstream.
endocrinologist physician who specializes in the medical practice of treating the diseases and disorders of the endocrine system
endocrinology field of medicine of the endocrine system
estrogen hormones that promotes the development of female secondary sex characteristics
euthyroid normally functioning thyroid gland
exocrine gland gland that opens onto the surface of the skin through ducts in the epithelium, such as an oil gland or sweat gland
exophthalmia outward protrusion of the eyeballs
gigantism excessive size and height, due to oversecretion. growth hormone. proportional overgrowth of the body's tissue due to the hypersecretion of the human growth hormone before puberty
glucagon hormone secreted by the islets of Langerhans, stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose
glucogenesis formation of glycogen from fatty acids and proteins instead of carbohydrates
glucose simplest form of sugar in the body
glycogenesis conversion of excess glucose into glycogen
glycosuria presence of sugar in the urine
Graves' disease hyperthyroidism
hypercalcemia elevated blood calcium level
hyperglycemia elevated blood surgar level
hypergonadism excessive activity of the ovaries or testes
hyperinsulinism excessive amount of insulin in the body
hyperkalemia elevated blood potassium level
hypernatremia elevated blood sodium level
hyperparathyroidism hyperactivity of parathyroid glands
hyperpituitarism overactivity of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
hypocalcemia less than normal blood calcium level
hypoglycemia less than normal blood sugar level
hypokalemia less than normal blood potassium level
hyponatremia less than normal blood sodium level
insulin shock shock due to extremely low blood sugar level caused by an overdose of insulin, decreased intake of food, or excessive exercise by a diabetic patient who is insulin dependent. severe hypoglycemia is a medical emergency
medulla internal part of a sturcture or organ
metabolism sum of all physical and chemical processes
myxedema most severe form of hypothyroidism. characterized by puffiness of the hands and face; coarse, thickened edematous skin; an enlarged tongue; slow speech; loss of and dryness of the hair; sensitivity to cold; drowsiness; and mental apathy
oxytocin hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland, stimulates the contractions of the uterus during childbirth and stimulates the release of milk from the breasts of lactating woment
polydipsia excessive thirst
polyphagia excessive eating
polyuria large amounts of urine
progesterone female hormone secreted by the ovaries, changes that occur in the endometrium in anticipation of a fertilized ovum, and for development of the maternal placenta
somatotropic hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. regulates normal body growth; also called the growth hormone.
syndrome group of symptoms, indicative of a particular disease or abnormality
tetany condition characterized by severe cramping and twitching of the muscles and sharp flexion of the wrist and ankle joints
thyroiditis inflammation of the thyroid gland
virilism development of masculine physical traits in the female (male secondary sex characteristics)
dwarfism generalized growth retardation due to the deficiency of the human growth hormone
goiter (simple, nontoxic) hyperplasia of the thyroid gland; deficient amount of iodine
Graves' disease (hyperthyroidism) hypertrophy of the thyroid gland, excessive secretion of the thyroid hormone, causes an extremely high body metabolism thus creating multisystem changes. characteristics: hyperthyroidism, thyroid gland enlargement (goiter), exophthalmia(eye protrusion)
thyroiditis, chronic (Hashimoto's) chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland
thyroid storm acute, sometimes fatal, incident of overactivity of the thyroid; excessive secretion of thyroid hormone; characterized by critically high fever and pulse rate, dehydration, extreme irritability, and delirium; also known as thyrotoxicosis
Addison's disease life-thratening disease due to failure of the adrenal cortex to secret adequate mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids resulting from an autoimmune process, a neoplasm, an infection, or hemorrahage in the gland
Cushing's syndrome condition of the adrenal gland in which there is a cluster of symptoms occurring as a result of an excessive amount of cortisol or ACTH circulating in the blood
Type 1 (diabetes mellitus) occurs before the age of 30, sudden onset. no pancreatic activity & requires administration of insulin injections
Type 2 (diabetes mellitus) appears in adults after age of 40, gradual onset. some pancreatic activity but experience insulin resistance
diabetic retinopathy disorder of the blood vessels of the retina of the eye; capillaries experience localized areas of bulging (microaneurysms), hemorrhages, leakage, and scarring
gestational diabets women who are not diabetic before pregnancy develope diabetes during the pregnancy
pancreatic cancer malignant neoplasm; found in the head of the pancreas
pancreatitis acute or chronic destructive inflammatory condition of the pancreas
fasting blood sugar (FBS) blood glucose sample taken usually early in the morning after the person has been without food or drink since midnight
glucose tolerance test (GTT) test that evaluates the persons ability to tolerate a concentrated oral glucose; prior to glucose administration following with 30 minute, one hour, two hours, three hours
Hemoglobin A1C Test (HgbA1C) hemoglobin A1C test; blood test that shows the average level of glucose in an individual's blood during the last 3 months
sermun glucose test measure the amount of glucose in the blood at the time the sample was drawn
thyroid function test test that measure the blood levels of the hormones T3, T4, and TSH
thyroid scan examination that determines the position, size, shape, and physiological function of the thyroid gland through the use of radionuclear scanning
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) blood test a test that measures the concentration ot the TSH in the blood
glycogenolysis breakdown of glycogen
hirsutism excessive body hair in a male distribution pattern
adrenal cortex aldosterone
adrenal medulla adrenaline
anterior pituitary luteinizing hormone
ovaries estrogen
pancreas insulin
posterior pituitary oxytocin
thyroid thyroxine
thymus thymopoietin
pineal melatonin
testes testosterone
insulin decrease blood glucose levels
ADH regulates fluid/electrolyte balance
calcitonin regulates the level of calcium in the blood
aldosterone regulates fluid/electrolyte balance
catecholamine increase blood glucose levels
glucagon increases blood glucose levels
progesterone promotes maturation of the ovum
somatotropin regulates bone and muscle growth
luteinzing hormone stimulates testosterone secretion
oxytocin stimulates uterine contraction
testosterone promotes sperm maturation
adrenaline increase heart rate
prolactin stimulates milk secretion
melatonin may induce sleep
hydrocortisone increases blood glucose levels
Conn's disease (primary aldosteronism) condition characterized by excretion of excessive amounts of aldosterone. Headache, nocturia, fatigue, ventrical arrhythmais, tetany, and muscular weakness.
pheochromocytoma vasular tumor of the adrenal medulla
Created by: maxphia32
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