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Ch 5: A & P

Medical Terminology and Anatomy and Physiology

QuestionAnswer
The front of the body or body part. Anterior
The standard reference position for the body in the study of anatomy; in this position, the body is standing erect, facing the observer, with arms down at the sides and the palms of the hands forward. Anatomical position
A small tube located near the junction of the small and large intestines in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen, the function of which is not well understood. Appendix
The microscopic sacs of the lungs where gas exchange with the bloodstream takes place. Alveoli
The study of body structure. Anatomy
The largest artery in the body; it transports blood from the left ventricle to begin systemic circulation. Aorta
The ability of the heart to generate and conduct electrical impulses on its own. Automaticity
The highest portion of the shoulder. Acromion process
Any blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart. Artery
The conversion of glucose into energy WITHOUT the use of oxygen. Anaerobic metabolism
Four divisions of the abdomen used to pinpoint the location of a pain or injury. Abdominal quadrants
The two upper chambers of the heart; the right chamber receives unoxygenated blood returning from the body, and the left chamber receives oxygenated blood returning from the lungs. Atria
The conversion of glucose into energy BY THE USE of oxygen. Aerobic metabloism
The pelvic socket into which the ball of the proximal end of the femur fits to form the hip joint. Acetabulum
The smallest kind of artery. Arteriole
The joint where the acromion and the clavicle meet. Acromioclavicular joint
The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary motor function. Autonomic nervous system
On both sides. Bilateral
The round, saclike organ of the renal system used as a reservior for urine. Bladder
The pressure caused by blood exerting force against the walls of the blood vessels. Blood pressure
Artery of the upper arm; the site of the pulse checked on an infant in CPR. Brachial artery
The two large sets of branches that come off the trachea and enter the lungs. Bronchial
The heel bone. Calcaneus
A thin walled, microscopic blood vessel where the oxygen/carbon dioxide and nutrient/waste exchange with the body's cells takes place. Capillary
A system of specialized muscle tissue that conducts electrical impulses that stimulate the heart to beat. Cardiac conduction system
Specialized involuntary muscle found only in the heart. Cardiac muscle
The system made up of the heart and the blood vessels. Cardiovascular system
The large neck arteries, one on each side of the neck, that carry blood from the heart to the head. Corotid Arteries
The wrist bones. Carpals
The brain and spinal cord. Central nervous system
The corotid and femoral pulses, which can be felt in the central part of the body. Central pulses
The cardiovascular system. Circulatory system
The collarbone. Clavicle
Blood vessels that supply the muscle of the heart. Coronary arteries
The top, back, and sides of the skull. Cranium
The ring-shaped structure that forms the lower portion of the larynx. Cricoid cartilage
The inner layer of the skin, rich in blood vessels and nerves, found beneath the epidermis. Dermis
The muscular structure that divides the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. Diaphragm
The pressure in the arteries when the left ventricle is refilling. Diastolic blood pressure
System by which food travels through the body and is broken down into absorbable forms. Digestive system
Further away from the torso. Distal
Referring to the back of the body or the back of the hand or foot. Posterior (Dorsal)
Artery supplying the foot, lateral to the large tendon of the big toe. Dorsalis pedis
System of glands that produce chemicals called hormones that help to regulate many body activities and functions. Endocrine system
The outer layer of the skin. Epidermis
A leaf-shaped structure that prevents food and foreign matter from entering the tracea. Epiglottis
A hormone produced by the body; as a medication, it dilates respiratory passages and is used to relieve severe allergic reaction. Epinephrine
A passive process in which the intercostal muscles and the diaphragm relax, causing the chest cavity to decrease in size and air to flow out of the lungs. Exhalation
The major artery supplying the leg. Femoral artery
The large bone of the thigh. Also largest bone in the body. Femur
The lateral and smaller bone of the lower leg. Fibula
A sitting position. Fowler position
A sac on the underside of the liver that stores bile produced by the liver. Gullbladder
The proximal opening of the trachea. Glottic opening
The bone of the upper arm, between the shoulder and elbow. Humerus
Inadequate perfusion of the cells and tissues of the body caused my insufficient flow of blood through the capillaries. Hypoperfusion
The free-floating bone in the neck that provides structure to the larynx. Hyoid bone
The superior and widest protion of the pelvis. Ilium
Away from the head; usually compared with another structure that is closer to the head. Inferior
An active process in which the intercostal muscles and diaphragm contract, expanding the size of the chest cavity causing air to flow into the lungs. Inhalation
A hormone produced by the pancreas or taken as a medication by diabetics. Insulin
Muscle that responds automatically to brain signals but cannot be consciously controlled. Involuntary muscle
The lower, posterior portion of the pelvis. Ischium
The point where two bones come together. Joint
Organs of the renal system used to filter blood and regulate fluid levels of the body. Kidney
The muscular tube that removes water from waste products received from the small intestine and removes anything absorbed by the body toward excretion from the body. Large intestine
The voicebox. Larynx
To the side, away from the midline of the body. Lateral
Tissue that connects bone to bone. Ligament
The largest organ of the body, produces bile to assist in breakdown of fats and assist in the metabolism of various substances in the body. Liver
The organs where exchange of atmospheric oxygen and waste carbon dioxide take place. Lungs
Protrusions on the side of the ankle. Malleolus
The lower jaw bone. Mandible
The superior portion of the sternum. Manubrium
The two fused bones forming the upper jaw. Maxillae
Toward the midline of the body. Medial
The hand bones. Metacarpals
The feet bones. Metatarsals
A line drawn vertically from the middle of the armpit to the ankle. Mid-axillary line
The line through the center of each clavicle. Mid-clavicular line
An imaginary line drawn down the center of the body, dividing it into right and left halves. Midline
Tissue that can contract to allow movement of the body part. Muscle
The system of bones and skeletal muscles that supports and protects the body and permits movement. Musculoskeletal system
The nose bones. Nasal bones!
The area directly posterior to the nose. Nasopharynx
The system of brain, spinal cord, and nerves that governs sensation, movement, and thought. Nervous system
The bony structures around the eyes; the eye sockets. Orbits
The area directly posterior to the mouth. Oropharynx
Referring to the palm of the hand. Palmar
A gland located behind,(posterior), the stomach that produces insulin and juices that assist in digestion of food in the duodenum of the small intestine. Pancreas
The kneecap. Patella
The basin-shaped bony structure that supports the spine and is the point of proximal attachment for the lower extremities. Pelvis
The organ of male reproduction responsible for sexual intercourse and the transfer of sperm. Penis
The supply of oxygen to and removal of wastes from cells and tissues from the body as a result of the flow of blood through the capillaries. Perfusion
The nerves that enter and leave the spinal cord and travel between the brain and organs without passing through the spinal cord. Peripheral nervous system
The radial, brachial, posterior tibial, and dorsalis pedis pulses, which can be felt at peripheral points in the body. Peripheral pulses
The toe bones and finger bones. Phalanges
The area directly posterior to the mouth and nose; it is made up of the oropharynx and nasopharynx. Pharynx
The study of body function. Physiology
A flat surface formed when slicing through a solid object. Plane
Referring to the sole of the foot. Plantar
The fluid portion of the blood. Plasma
Components of the blood; membrane-enclosed fragments of specialized cells. Platelets
The back of the body or body part. Posterior (Dorsal)
Artery supplying the foot, behind the medial ankle. Posterior tibal artery
Laying face down. Prone
Closer to the torso. Proximal
The medial anterior portion of the pelvis. Pubis
The vessels that carry blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs. Pulmonary artery
The vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. Pulmonary veins
The rhythmic beats caused as waves of blood move through and expand the arteries. Pulse
Artery of the lower arm. It is felt when taking the pulse at the wrist. Radial artery
The lateral bone of the forearm. Radius
Laying on the side. Recovery position
Components of the blood that carry oxygen to and carbon dioxide away from the cells. Red blood cells
The body system that regulates fluid balance and filtration of the blood. Renal system
The body system that is responsible for human reproduction. Reproductive system
The process of moving oxygen and carbon dioxide between circulating blood and the cells. Respiration
The system of nose, mouth, throat, lungs, and muscles that bring oxygen into the body and expels carbon dioxide. Respiratory system
The shoulder blade. Scapula
Hypoperfusion Shock
The bones of the body. Skeleton
The layer of tissue between the body and the external environment. Skin
The bony structure of the head. Skull
The muscular tube between the stomach and the large intestine, divided into the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum, which receives partially digested food from the stomach and continues digestion. Small intestine
An organ located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen that acts as a blood filtration system and a reservoir for reserves of blood. Spleen
The breastbone. Sternum
Muscular sac between the esophagus and the small intestine where digestion of food begins. Stomach
The layers of fat and soft tissue found below the dermis. Subcutaneous layers
Toward the head. Superior
Laying on the back. Supine
The pressure created in the arteries when the left ventricle contracts and forces blood out into circulation. Systolic blood pressure
The ankle bones. Tarsals
Tissue that connects muscle to bone. Tendon
The chest. Thorax
The wing-shaped plate of cartilage that sits anterior to the larynx and forms the Adam's apple. Thyroid cartilage
The medial and largest bone of the lower leg. Tibia
The trunk of the body; the body without the head and the extremities. Torso
The windpipe; the structure that connects the pharynx to the lungs. Trachea
A position in which the patient's feet and legs are higher than the head. Trendelenburg position
The medial bone of the forearm. Ulna
Connecting the bladder to the vagina or penis for excretion of urine. Urethra
Female organ of production used to house the developing fetus. Uterus
The female organ of reproduction used for both sexual intercourse and as an exit from the uterus for the fetus. Vagina
A structure that opens and closes to permit the flow of fluid in only one direction. Valve
Any blood vessel returning blood to the heart. Vein
The superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava, which return blood from the body to the right atrium. Venae Cavae
The process of moving gases(oxygen and carbon dioxide) between inhaled air and the pulmonary circulation of the blood. Ventilation
Referring to the front of the body. Ventral (Anterior)
The two lower chambers of the heart. Ventricles
The smallest kind of vein. Venule
The 33 bones of the spinal colomn. Vertebrae
Muscle that can be consciously controlled. Voluntary muscle
Components of blood; they produce substances that help the body fight infection. White Blood Cells
The inferior portion of the Sternum. Xiphoid process
Form the structure of the cheeks. Zygomatic arches
Roots that are combined in medical terms. Combining form
Two or more whole words combined. Compound
Used to modify or qualify a root work. Prefix
Foundation of a word. Root
Word ending that forms nouns, adjectives, and verbs. Suffix
The male organ that produces sperm. Testes
Gives the body shape, provides for body movements, and protects vital internal organs. Musculoskeletal system
Muscle found in the walls of the blood vessels, gastrointestinal system, lungs, and uninary ststem and controls the flow of materials through these systems. Involuntary
Created by: lyssadegroat