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A&P Test- Chaps 1-4

Sagittal Plane Passes vertically through the body or an organ and divides it into right and left portions.
Frontal (Coronal) Plane Passes vertically through the body and divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions.
Transverse (Horizontal) Plane Passes across the body or an organ perpendicular to its long axis, dividing the body or organ into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions.
Palpation Feeling
Auscultation Listening
Percussion Tapping and listening for echoes and sounds.
Inspection Looking
Gross Anatomy Able to see with naked eye.
Histology Need microscope to see.
Hipocrates Father of Medicine
Claudius Galen Physician to Roman gladiators.
Andreas Vasalius Father of cadaver medicine.
Robert Hooke Invented microscope.
Antony Van Leeuwenhoek Invented Microscope. Not scientist.
Charles Darwin Father of evolutionary theory.
Evolution Change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms.
Natural Selection The process by which the most fit survive.
Adaptations Features of an organism's anatomy, physiology, and behavior that have evolved in response to these selection pressures and enable the organism to cope with the challenges of its environment.
Hierarchy of Structure Atom, molecule, organelle, tissue, organ, organ system, organism.
Fact Information that can be independently verified by an trained person.
Law A generalization about the predictable ways in which matter and energy behave.
Theory An explanatory statement or set of statements derived from facts, laws and confirmed hypotheses.
Positive Feedback A physiological change leads to even greater change in the same direction. Birth and blood clotting.
Negative Feedback A process in which the body senses a change and activates mechanisms that negate or revise it.
Valance Shell Rule 1st shell-2, 2nd shell-8, 3rd shell-8.
Isotopes Different number of neutrons.
Ion Different number of electrons
Cation Gains electrons and acquires a negative charge.
Anion Loses electrons and acquires a positive charge.
Electrolytes Ionized minerals.
Ionic Bond The attraction of a cation to an anion.
Covalent Bond Forms by the sharing of electrons.
Hydrophilic Water lover.
Hydrophobic Water hater.
Properties of Water Solvency, Cohesion, Adhesion, Chemical Reactivity, and Thermal Stability.
Solvency Waters ability to dissolve stuff.
Cohesion Water sticks to itself.
Adhesion Water sticks to other things.
Chemical Reactivity Water participates in lots of important chemical reactions.
Thermal Stability Water has a wide range of temperatures: 1-100 degrees Celsius and 32-212 degrees Fahrenheit.
Acid Proton donor.
Base Proton acceptor.
pH Scale Runs from 0-14. 7 is neutral and everythign higher is a bse and everything lower is an acid.
More acidic Means less pH.
More alkaline (base) Means higher pH.
pH goes down as... hydrogen ion goes up.
More hydrogen ion means.. more acidic and lower base.
Aerobic Cellular Respiration Oxidation of organic compounds in a reaction series that requires oxygen and produces ATP. Making energy.
Metabolism Catabolism- Breaks down. Anabolism- Builds up.
Reduction and Oxidation Involve exchanging of electrons.
Dehydration Synthesis Remove water to build up.
Hydrolysis Add water back in to break apart.
Nucleic DNA and RNA
Hydroxi -OH
Methyl -CH3
Carboxyl -COOH
Amino -NH2
Phosphate H2PO4
Polysaccharides Glycogen, Starch, and Cellulose.
Glycogen Glucose storage in animals.
Starch Glucose storage in plants.
Cullulose Plant cell walls.
Phospholipid An amphilphilic molecule composed of two fatty acids and a phosphate-containing group bonded to the three carbons of glycerol molecule; composes most of the molecules of the plasma membrane and other cellular membranes.
Proteins Are made of amino acids.
Primary Structure Sequence of amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
Secondary Structure Alpha helix of beta sheet formed by hydrogen bonding.
Tertiary Structure Folding and coiling due to interactions among R groups and between R groups and surrounding water.
Quaternary Structure Association of two or more polypeptied chains with each other.
Amino Acids Made up of COOH (Carboxial), H (Hydrogen), NH3-, and R group.
Enzymes Biological catalysts.
Enzymes. Are proteins. Decrease the activation energy of a reaction. Not consumed in the reactions. NOt consumed in the reactions. Ultra specific. Binding site.
ATP Energy currency.
Energy Needed for oxygen.
Nucleotides Monotide of nucleic acid.
Modern Cell Theory All organisms are composed of cells and cell products. The monomer of life is the cell. Cells determine an organism's function. Cells come from preexisting cells. Cells within species are similar.
Micrometer One millionth of a meter.
Giga billion
Mega million
Kilo thousand
Mili thousandth
Micro millionth
Nano billionth
Resolution The ability to tell two things apart in a microscope.
Mitochondria Energy organelle. ATP made there.
Nucleus Contains DNA. Only place it is found.
Ribosomes Make proteins.
Endoplasmic Reticulum Processing plant of cell.
Microvillas Extensions on edge of cell to give it more surface area.
Cilia In respiratory tract. Moves stuff up.
Flagellum Appendage of he membrane for motility.
Plasma Membrane Has carbohydrates, proteins and lipids but NOT nucleic acid.
Filtration A process in which hydrostatic pressure forces a fluid through a selectively permeable membrane.
Facilitated Diffusion Help make it go better.
Active TransPort Requires energy. Goes up concentration gradient.
Endocytosis Into
Exocytosis Opposite of endocytosis. Out of.
Phagocytosis Cell eating.
Pinocytosis Cell drinking.
Nucleotide Compartments Nitrogenous base, pento sugar, phosphate group.
Audenine and Guadine are pure as gold.
Rosalind Franklin Forgotten hero.
Histones Proteins that act liek spools that DNA get wrapped around. Package DNA.
Five Differences between DNA and RNA Sugar- Deoxyribose (DNA), Ribose (RNA). Types of nitrogenous bases- A,T,C,G (DNA), A,U,C, (RNA). Number of nitrogenous bases- Less (DNA), More (RNA). Number of nucleotide chains- Two (DNA), One (RNA). Site of action- Functions in nucleus; cannot leave
Replication Using DNA to make more DNA
Transcription Using DNA to make messenger RNA (mRNA).
Translation Using mRNA to make proteins (occurs in cytoplasm).
DNA Helicase An enzyme that opens up one short segment of the helix at a time, exposing its nitrogenous bases.
-ase suffix Is an enzyme.
DNA Polymerase An enzyme that moves along each strand; reads the exposed bases; and like arranges "marriages" with complementary free nucleotides.
Purines Guanine and Audine
DNA Ligase Glues the lagging strand in DNA.
Mitosis A mechanism by which cells divide.
Base Triplets Sets of bases
RNA Polymerase Makes RNA in the cytoplasm
Which uses uricil, DNA or RNA? RNA
tRNA Transfer RNA. Hang out in packs in Cytoplasm.
Ribosome reads??? The Codons on mRNA.
Codons are on??? mRNA
Anticodons are on??? tRNA
What to do with Glucose? Make ATP. Store it. Absorb it to fat syntheses.
Glycolysis 1) In cytoplasm. 2) Consumes Glucose, 2 ATP, 2 NAD. 3) Makes pyruvate (pyruvic acid), 4ATP, 2NADH.
Kreb's Cycle 1) Occurs in mitochondrial matrix (center of mitochondria). 2) Consumes pyruvate. 3) Makes 2ATP, 8 NADH, 2 FADH2.
Electron Transport Chain/System 1) OCcurs in inner mitochondria membrane. 2) Consumes NADH, FADH2, O2 3) MAkes NAD, FADH, and lots of ATP (34 generaly).
The purpose of aerobic respiration in human cells is to??? Recycle NAD so glycolysis can continue.
ATP Syntheses Enzyme Synthesizes ATP.
Hydrogen Bond A weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and a slightly negative oxygen or nitrogen atom in another.
Van der Waals Forces Weak, brief attractions between neutral atoms.
Monosaccahrides Glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose, and deoxyribose.
Hypertonic Lower concentration of solute.
Hypotonic Higher concentration of solute.
Isotonic Equal concentrations of solute and solvent.
Proton Motive Force Uses facilitated diffusion.
Aerobic Cellular Respiration Formula Glucose + O2 = ATP + H2O + CO2
Created by: elloj