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BIO201 - Ch 12 - Central Nervous System - Marieb/Hoehn - Rio Salado - AZ

Cephalization Elaboration ofthe rostral (anterior) portion of CNS
The __ differentiates rapidly by the 4th week into the CNS Neural Tube
The brain forms __ & spinal cord develops from __ portion of neural tube. Anteriorly (rostrally) - caudal (posterior)
3 primary brain vesicles Prosencephalon (forebrain), mesencephalon (midbrain), & rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
Encephalo "brain"
Secondary brain vesicles Primary vesicles divide into 5 secondary vesicles
The cerebral hemispheres (cerebrum) come from? Telencephalon which sprouts 2 latteral swellings @ 5 wks.
Cortex outer layer of brain consisting of neuron cell bodies.
Hollow ventricular chambers are filled w/__ & lined with __. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) - ependymal cells
Interventricular Foramen Foramen of Monro - channel that allows communication between lateral ventricles & 3rd ventricle.
Cerebral Aqueduct Canal-like structure linking 3rd & 4th ventricle.
The 4th ventricle is continuous w/__. The central canal of the spinal cord.
The lateral & median aperatures connect 4th ventricle to __. The subarachnoid space - fluid-filled space surrounding brain.
The elevated ridges of cerebral hemisphere are the __ & the shallow grooves __. Deeper groves are __. Gyri, sulci, fissures.
Longitudinal fissure Separates cerebral hemispheres
Transverse cerebral fissure Separates cerebral hemispheres from cerebellum.
Name the 5 lobes of each hemisphere. Frontal, parietal, temporal,occipital, & insula.
The frontal lobes like in the __. Anterior cranial fossa
Conscious mind is found in the __. Cerebral Cortex
Gray Matter Neuron cell bodies, dendrites, glia & blood vessels, but NO FIBER TRACTS.
Specific motor & sensory functions are localizedin descrete cortical __. Domains
Cerebral cortex contains 3 functional areas. Motor, sensory, & association
All neurons in the cortex are __. Interneurons
What anatomical landmark separates motor areas of cerebral cortex from sensory areas? Central Sulcus
Primary motor corex located where? Precentral gyrus of frontal lobe of each hemisphere.
Pyramidal Cells Lg. neurons that allow us to consciously control voluntary movements of skeletal muscles - long axons.
The entire body is represented spatially in the __. Primary motor cortex of each hemisphere.
Somatotopy Mapping of body in CNS structures (motor homunculus).
Premotor cortex Controls learned motor skills - repetitious-memory bank for skilled motor activities.
Broca's Area In 1 hemosphere only - motor speech area.
Frontal eye field controls voluntary eye movements
Primary somatosensory cortex resides in postcentral gyrus of parietal lobe - re. info from somatic sensors - spacial discrimination.
Spacial discrimination Rec. info from proprioceptros (position sense receptors) & identifying body region being stimulated.
Somatosensory association cortex Integrates sensory inputs relayed to it by primary somatosensory cortex & associates it to produce understanding.
Primary visual (striate) cortex Occipital lobe (located in) - largest cortical sensory area - rec. visual info.
Visual association area Uses past visual experienceto interpret visual stim.
Primary auditory cortex Temporal lobe (location) - rec. auditory stimulation
Auditory association area "perceives" sound stimulus using sound memories.
Olfactory (smell) cortex Medial aspect of temporal lobe - piriform lobe - conscious awarenessof odors - part of primitive rhinencephalon.
Gustatory (taste) cortex In insula - perception of taste.
Visceral sensory area In cortex of insula - conscious perception of viseral sens.
Vestibular (equilibrium) cortex In posterior partof insula - conscious awareness of balance.
Multimodal association cortex Where sensations, thoughts, & emotions become conscious & makes us what we are.
Multimodal association areas - 3 parts Anterior (prefrontal),posterior, & limbic
Anterior association area Frontal lobe - prefrontal cortex - most complicated cognition, recall & personality. Develops slowly - maturity.
"Maturity" can be attributed to maturity of __. Prefrontal cortex
Posterior association area Large area - temporal, parietal, & occipital - recognized patterns, faces, etc. - Wernicke's area here - language.
Limbic association area Cingulate & parahippocampal gyrus, & hippocampus - emotional impact - danger - memories.
Lateralization Division of labor into hemispheres.
Left hemisphere Control of language, abilities, math, & logic.
Right hemisphere Visual-spatial skills, intuition, emotion, creativity.
Cerebral white matter Responsible for communication between cerebral areas & cortex & lower CNS centers. Myelinated fibers bundled into large tracts.
Fibers & tracts have 3 classification directions. Commissural (horizontal), association (verticle), or projection (verticle).
Commissures Composed of commissural fibers (horizontal) - connect gray areas of both hemispheres - largest is corpus callosum.
Corpus Callosum Deep w/in longitudinal fissure - largest commissure - connects both hemispheres so they can coordinate.
Association Fibers Connect different parts of same hemisphere.
Projection Fibers Tie cortex to rest of nervous system - run vertically.
Internal Capsule compact band of projection fibers on top of brain stem - fans out (coronal radiata) to cerebral wt.matter to cortex.
Basal Nuclei Regulate attention & cognition - Caudate nucleus, putamon, & globus pallidus - collection of nerve bodies in CNS
Where does Parkenson's hit? Basal Nuclei
Diencephalon Central core of forebrain - thalamus, hypothalamus, & epithalamus.
Thalamus Info from body is sorted out & relayed to cortex - mediates sensation, motor activities, cortical arousal, learning & memory - contains lg. # of nuclei.
What is known as the "gateway to the cerebral cortex?" The Thalamus
Pons Hindbrain region - traffic center for signals between cerebellum & forebrain.
Midbrain Coordinates reflex responses to sights & sounds - has the "tectum" (roof of gray matter). Cerebral peduncles, cerebral aqueduct, & tectum.
Forebrain Most highly developed region - includes cerebrum, olfactory bulbs, thalamus, & hypothalamus.
Cerebrum Information is processed & responses are integrated.
Hypothalamus Caps brain stem - main visceral control center - regulates body activities: temp, autonomic control center, sleep-wake, & endocrine.
Epithalamus Pineal gland here - regulates sleep-wake cycle.
Brain Stem Autonomic behaviors, instincts - Superior to inferior - midbrain, pons, & medulla oblongata. Gray embedded in white - reticular formation that helps govern nerv sys as whole.
Cerebral peduncles Verticle pillars holding up cerebrum.
__ nerve carries signals to the heart. Vagus
__ controls unconscious control of motor activity. Cerebellum
__ is major coordinating center for sensory signal. Thalamus
Thalamus Sensory relay switchboard - coordinates sensory imput & relays signals to cerebrum.
Hypothalamus The body's supercenter for controlling homeostatic adjustments in internal organs.
Reticular Formation Balance, posture, & muscle tone - Low-level motor pathway - major network of interneurons.
Limbic System Governs emotions & "gut" reactions like rage.
Cerebellum Language, dexterity, movement, & balance - occurs spontaneously - motor control & sense of position.
3 Divisions of the Brain Hindbrain, midbrain & forebrain.
Hindbrain Medulla oblongata, cerebellum, & pons - relfex center for respiration, blood circ., coughing.
Superior Colliculi Visual reflex center - coordinate hand & eye movements when following an object.
Inferior Colliculi Auditory relay to sensory cortex - startle reflex
Substantia Nigra High content of melanin - dopamine released here.
Medulla Oblongata Inferior part of brain stem - autonomic reflex center - cardiac, respiratory, vomiting, swallowing, sneezing, etc.
Cerebellar hemispheres connected medially by __. Vermis
Anterior & posterior lobes of cerebellum __. Coordinate body movements
All fibers entering & leaving the cerebellum are __. Ipsilateral - from & to same side of body
The cerebellum has no __ connections to cerebral cortex. direct
Cerebellar injury results in loss of __. Muscle tone & clumsy, unsure movements.
Limbic System Amygdala here - is our emotional brain & cingulate gyrus - expressing emotion through gestures - relayed through hypothalamus.
Reticular Formation Loosely clustered neurons - extend length of brain stem - maintains alert wakefulness, muscle coordination - RAS
Reticular Activating System (RAS) Acts as filter for flood of sensory input - is inhibited by sleep center & drugs - coma - central to wakefulness.
Alpha Waves 8-13 Hz
Beta Waves 14-30 Hz
Theta Waves 4-7 Hz - common in chldren - abnormal in awake adults.
Delta Waves 4hz or less - During sleep & anesthesia - indicate brain damage when awake.
Absense seizures Petit Mal - mild seizures - face goes blank.
Tonic-clonic seizures Grand Mal - severe, convulsive epileptic seizure.
Vagus Nerve Stimulator Anti-epilepsy device - Delivers pulse via vagus nerve to brain to keep electrical activity of brain.
A brief loss of consciousness is called __. Fainting or syncope.
In coma oxygen use is always __ normal. Below
__ activity is depressed during sleep, but not __ functions. Cortical activity - brainstem
Oxygen use by brain during REM sleep is __ than awake state. Greater
Most nighmares & night terrors occur during __. NonREM stages 3 & 4
In the awake state, alertness of cerebral is mediated by the __. RAS
Lesions of the RAS nuclei result in __. Unconsciousness
When certain neurons of the __ fire at maximal rates, we awaken for the day. Midbrain reticular formation
Arachnoid Mater Forms a loose brain covering.
Pia Mater Delicate CT w/blood vessels - cling to brain.
Cerebrospinal fluid reduces brain weight by __. 97% - by floating it.
CFS (cerebrospinal fluid) formed from __. The choroid plexuses that hang from roof of each ventricle.
Hydrocephalus Accumulating CSF fluid on brain - must be shunted off.
Most important blood-brain barriers? Tight junctions between capillary endothelial cells thatmake them the least permeable capillaries in body.
Contre coup injury Ricocheting effect as brain hits skull in accident.
The blood-brain barrier is ineffective against __. Fats, fatty acids, oxygen, CO2, & fat-soluable alcohol, nicotine & anesthetics can affect the brain.
Severe brain stem contusions always cause __. Coma - due to injury of reticular activating sys. (RAS)
Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) also are called? Strokes
ischemia Deprivation of blood supply to a tissue.
Hemiplegia Paralyzed on one side of body.
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) Dissolves blood clots in the brain.
Huntington's Disease Hyperkinetic manifestation due to too much dopamine.
Spinal cord develops from __ of embryonic neural tube. Caudal portion.
Alar plate neuroblasts become __. Interneurons (dorsal)
Basal plate neuroblasts become __. Motor neurons (ventral)
Dorsal root ganglia contain __. Sensory neuron cell bodies.
The spinal cord typically ends between __. L1 & L2
Conus Medullaris Where spinal cord terminates in tapering cone.
Filum terminale Anchors spinal cord to coccyx.
Why does spinal cord enlarge in cervical & lumbar areas? Nerves serving limbs arise in those areas.
__ pairs of spinal nerves attach to cord by paired roots. 31
Each nerve exits from column via the __. Intervertebral formina
2 grooves that mark surface of spinal cord. Anterior median fissue & posterior median sulcus.
Gray matter of cord is in __, white is __. Core, outside
Gray commissure Cross-bar of gray matter connecting internal gray masses of spinal canal - encloses central canal.
Small lateral horns are present in __ & __. Thoracic & superior lumbar segments of cord - autonomic.
All neurons whose cell bodies are in the spinal cord gray matter are __. Multipolar
The dorsal horns of spinal cord are __. Interneurons
Ventral horns of spinal cord are mostly __. Somatic motor neurons.
Afferent fibers from peripheral sensory receptors form __. Dorsal roots of spinal cord.
First-order Neurons Cell body in ganglion-conduct impulses from skin to spinal cord or brain stem & synapse w/2nd order.
Second-order Neurons Cell body in dorsal horn of cord - transmit to thalamus or cerebellum.
Third-order Neurons Cell body in thalamus-conduct to somatosensory cortex of cerebrum.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Lou Gehrig's disease - destruction of ventral horn motor neurons & pyramidal tract.
Stage __ sleep declines steadily from birth & often disappears completely in those over 60. 4
2 regions that are critically important for language. Broca's & Wernicke's area.
Longterm potentiation (LTP) Persistant increase in synaptic strength.
From external to internal, the meninges are: Dura mater, arachnoid mater, & pia mater.
Dura Mater "Tough Mother" - strongest meninx - surrounds brain.
3 basic kinds of neurons. Sensory neurons, interneurons, & motor neurons.
Sensory neurons Collect & relay info about stimuli to spinal cord & brain.
Interneurons In the spinal cord & brain - receive & process sensory input & send signals to other neurons.
Motor neurons Relay signals from interneurons to effectors - muscles & glands - that carry out responses.
Created by: Ladystorm



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