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Muscle Anatomy

Origins, insertions, actions_IA

MuscleOriginInsertionActionDescriptionInnervation
Abdominals - External Obliques external surface of lower 8 ribs External lip of iliac crest Bilateral: Flexes spine Most superficial abdominal muscle. Fibers run downwards and towards the mid-line thoracoabdominal ns. & subcostal n.
Abdominals - Internal Obliques Lateral 1/2 inguinal ligament, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia - posterior (blank) (blank) Second level of the lateral aspect of the abdomen. Fibers run upward & towards the mid-line (blank)
Abdominals - External Obliques Lower 8 ribs Anterior iliac crest & abdominal aponeurosis to the linea alba Bilateral: Flexes spine Most superficial abdominal muscle. Fibers run downwards and towards the mid-line 8 - 12th Intercostal, iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal
Abdominals - Internal Obliques iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia , fascia iliaca Cartilage of lower 3 ribs & costal margins; down to pubis Bilateral: Flexes spine Second level of the lateral aspect of the abdomen. Fibers run upward & towards the mid-line lower 2-3 thoracoabdominal ns. & subcostal n
Abdominals - Rectus Abdominus xyphoid process & costal cartilages 5-7 pubis crest & symphysis Flexes the spine, assists in stabilizing the pelvis Superficial level of abdomen thoracoabdominal ns & subcostal n
Abdominals - Transversus Abdominus fascia iliaca, iliac crest (internal lip), thoracolumbar fascia, cartilage of lower 6 ribs aponeurosis that contributes to rectus sheath Compress the abdomen Deepest abdominal, surrounds the abdomen. Fibers run transversely from back to the mid-line thoracoabdominal ns, & subsostal n.
Abductor Digiti Minimi - Foot Lateral side of proximal phalanx of 5th toe Abducts the 5th (baby) toe (blank) Lateral plantar
Abductor Digiti Minimi - Hand Pisiform, tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris Media side of the base of phalanx of the 5th digit Abduct the 5th (pinky) digit Makes up the hypothenar eminence, superficial FDMB & ODM Ulnar nerve, C8, T1
Abductor Hallucis Medial base of proximal phalanx of the great toe Abducts the great toe (blank) Medial plantar n
Abductor Pollicis Brevis Tubercle of scaphoid & trapezium & flexor retinaculum Base of the proximal phalange of the thumb Abducts the thumb & moves it anteriorly (blank) Median nerve C6, C7
Abductor Pollicis Longus Lateral border of ulna (just above extensor pollicis longus), interosseous membrane, posterior shaft of radius Posterior base of 1st metacarpal (proximal) Abducts and extends the thumb, laterally rotates thumb. Radial deviation of wrist Deepest level of the dorsal aspect of forearm Radial nerve C6, C7
Adductor Brevis body & inferior ramus of pubis pectineal line & proximal part of linea aspera of femur Adduction of thigh; assists w/ flexion of thigh Second level lying beneath the pectineus and adductor longus Obturator n (anterior branch) L2,L3, L4
Adductor Hallucis Transverse head: Plantar metatarsophalangeal ligaments of 3, 4, 5th toes and transverse ligaments Lateral base of proximal phalanx of great toe Adducts the great toe (blank) Lateral plantar S1, S2
Adductor Longus body of pubis inferior to pubic crest Medial third of the linea aspera Adduction of thigh Superficial level, same plane as pectineus Obturator (anterior branch) L2,L3, L4
Adductor Magnus adductor portion: inferior ramus of pubis, ramus of ischium. Hamstring portion: ischial tuberosity Add. portion: gluteal tuberosity, lineas aspera, medial supracondylar line. Ham. portion: adductor tubercle of femur Add. portion: adducts thigh, flexes thigh. Ham. portion: adducts thigh, extends thigh adductor hiatus transmits femoral A&V from adductor canal to popliteal fossa Add portion: posterior branch obturator n (L2,3,4). Ham portion: tibial portion of Sciatic n (L4)
Adductor Pollicis Oblique head: Anterior surface of 2nd & 3rd metacarpals, capitate & trapezoid Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb Adducts thumb (blank) Ulnar nerve, C8, T1
Anconeus Lateral epicondyle of the humerus Lateral part of olecranon process, posterior surface of ulna Extends forearm (blank) Radial C7, C8
Auricularis Anterior & Superior: Fascia in temporal region Anterior: Anterior to helix of the ear Anterior: Draws ears forward (blank) Anterior & Superior: Facial nerve, temporal branch
Biceps Brachii-Long Head Supraglenoid tubercle of scapula Tuberosity of the radius, bicipital aponeurosis into the deep fascia of the medial forearm Flexion of shoulder, Flexion and Supination of Forearm (blank) Musculocutaneous C5, C6
Biceps Brachii-Short Head Coracoid process of the scapula Tuberosity of the radius, bicipital aponeurosis into the deep fascia of the medial forearm Flexion of shoulder, Flexion and Supination of Forearm (blank) Musculocutaneous C5, C6
Biceps Femoris-Long Head Ischial tuberosity Lateral head of the fibula Knee flexion & laterally rotate leg; Long head assists with hip extension Superficial on the lateral & posterior aspect of the thigh Sciatic nerve, tibial division (L5, S1, S2)
Biceps Femoris-Short Head Linea aspera, lateral supracondylar line of femur Lateral side of the fibula Knee flexion & laterally rotate leg Superficial on the lateral & posterior aspect of the thigh Sciatic nerve, common peroneal (L5, S1, S2)
Brachialis Anterior, lower ½ of humerus. Deep to the biceps brachii Ulna tuberosity, coronoid process (the smaller beak-like projection arising from the anterior aspect of the ulna, just below the olecranon process) Flexion of the forearm Second level of the front of the humerus Musculocutaneous C5, C6
Brachioradialis Upper 2/3 lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus Styloid process on the lateral radius at the distal end of the radius Flexion of the forearm Superficial level of the lateral side of the forearm. AKA "drinking muscle" Radial C5, C6
Buccinator Outer surfaces of alveolar processes of the maxilla and mandible over the molars and along the pterygomandibular raphe Deep part of the muscles of the lips Compresses the cheek (blank) Facial nerve, buccal branch
Coracobrachialis Apex of coracoid process Middle 1/3 of medial surface of humerus Aduction, some Flexion of shoulder Second level of the shoulder/upper arm Musculocutaneous C6, C7
Corrugator Supercilii Medial end of the supercillary arch Deep surface of the skin under the medial portion of the eyebrow Draws eyebrows down & medial (blank) Facial nerve, temporal branch
Deltoid-Anterior Lateral 1/3 of clavicle Deltoid tuberosity of humerus Flexion, Medial (Internal) rotation, Abduction of shoulder Superfiscial layer of anterior forearm Axillary C5, C6
Deltoid-Middle Lateral acromion process Deltoid tuberosity of humerus Abduction from 15 - 90 degrees Superficial level of the shoulder Axillary C5, C6
Deltoid-Posterior Spine of scapula Deltoid tuberosity of humerus Extention, Lateral (external) rotation, Aduction of shoulder Superficial level of the shoulder Axillary C5, C6
Depressor Anguli Oris Oblique line of the mandible Angle of the mouth Depresses the angle of the mouth (frowning) Lateral to Depressor Labii Inferioris Facial nerve, mandibular branch
Depressor Labii Inferioris Mandible between the symphysis & the mental foramen Skin of lower lip Draws the lower lip down and lateral Medial to Depressor Anguli Oris Facial nerve, mandibular branch
Depressor Septi Incisive fossa of the maxilla Nasal septum & ala Constrict nares (blank) Facial nerve, buccal branch
Diaphragm Sternal division: Posterior xiphoid process; costal division-inner surfaces of lower 6 costal cartilages & lower 4 ribs; lumbar-bodies of upper lumbar vertebrae via medial and lateral arcuate ligs. Central tendon (no bony attachments) Draws the central tendon down during inspiration, increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity. Also assists in returning blood to the heart most impt m of respiration Pherenic nerve (C3,4,5)
Digastricus Posterior belly: Mastoid notch of the temporal bone Intermediate tendon attached to the hyoid bone Raises the hyoid bone, assists in opening the jaw, moves the hyoid bone forward & backward (swallowing) Forms the Anterior Triangle of the neck - Suprahyoid muscles Posterior portion: Facial nerve
Dorsal Interossei - Foot Adjacent sides of metatarsal bones Bases of proximal phalanges Abducts toes, flexes proximal phalanges (blank) Lateral plantar S1, S2
Dorsal Interossei - Hand (blank) (blank) Abducts fingers away from center of third finger at metacarpophalangeal joints, assist in flexion of fingers (blank) Ulnar nerve C8, T1
Epicranius Occipital belly: Lateral 2/3 of superior nuchal line of the occiput, mastoid process, Frontal belly: Galea aponeurotica Occipital belly: Galea aponeurotica, Frontal belly: Fascia of the facial muscles & skin above the nose & eyes Draws back scalp, wrinkles forehead & raises eyebrows AKA: Occipital frontal Occipital belly: Facial nerve - posterior auricular branch, Frontal belly: Facial nerve - temporal branch
Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Lateral epicondyle of humerus Base of 3rd metacarpal Extends hand Superficial level of the posterior forearm Radial nerve, C6, C7
Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus. Just above the lateral epicondyle of humerus Base of the 2nd metacarpal Extends hand, radial deviation Superficial level of the posterior forearm Radial nerve, C6, C7
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Lateral epicondyle of humerus via CET Base of the 5th metacarpal Extends hand, ulnar deviation Superficial level of the dorsal aspect of the forearm Radial nerve, C6-C8
Extensor Digiti Minimi Lateral epicondyle of humerus via CET Base of the proximal phalanx of the fifth digit Extends pinky finger Superficial level of posterior forearm. AKA "The Tea Cup Finger" Radial nerve, C6-C8
Extensor Digitorum Lateral epicondyle of humerus via Common Extensor Tendon (CET) Base of distal phalanges of the four fingers (last joint in distal finger) Extends fingers and wrist Superficial level of posterior forearm Radial nerve, deep branch C6-C8
Extensor Digitorum Brevis floor of sinus tarsi and external retinaculum divides to lateral 4 toes Extends the four lessor toes (blank) Deep peroneal L5, S1
Extensor Digitorum Longus lateral condyle tibia, superior 3/4 of medial surface of the fibula, interosseous membrane middle and distal phalanges of lateral 4 toes Extends lateral 4 toes, dorsiflexion of ankle, weak eversion of foot Lower leg - anterior. Superficial, just lateral to extensor hallicus longus Deep peroneal (L5, S1)
Extensor Hallicus Longus Middle part of anterior surface of fibula & interosseous membrane dorsal aspect of base of the distal phalanx of the great toe Extends great toe, dorsiflexion of ankle, invertor of foot Lower leg - anterior. Second level just lateral to tibialis anterior deep peroneal n (L5,S1)
(blank) Posterior Ulna, interosseous membrane Extensor expansion of the posterior surface of the index finger Extends index finger Deepest level of the dorsal aspect of forearm Radial nerve, C6-C8
Extensor Pollicis Brevis Interosseous membrane, posterior surface of radius Base of proximal phalanx tissue of thumb Extends thumb, radial deviation Deepest level of the dorsal aspect of forearm Radial nerve, C6, C7
Extensor Pollicis Longus Middle 1/3 of dorsolateral surface of ulna (posterior), interosseous membrane Base of the distal phalanx of the thumb Extends the thumb Deepest level of the dorsal aspect of forearm Radial nerve, C6-C8
Flexor Carpi Radialis Medial epicondyle of humerus via CFT Base of 2 & 3 metacarpals (index & middle finger) Flexion of hand, abduction/radial deviation at wrist joint Superficial level of anterior forearm. Crossing from the medial to lateral side Median nerve C6, C7
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Humeroulnar head: Medial epicondyle of humerus via common flexor tendon (CFT), Ulnar head: Olecranon process Pisiform, hook of hamate, base of fifth metacarpal Flexion of the hand, adduction/ulnar deviation at wrist joint Superficial layer of anterior forearm. Medial to palmaris longus. Ulnar nerve C8, T1
Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis - Foot Base of the 5th metatarsal & sheath of peroneus longus tendon Lateral base of proximal phalanx of 5th toe Flexes proximal phalanx of 5th toe (blank) Lateral plantar S1, S2
Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis - Hand Anterior surface of flexor retinaculum, hook of hamate Medial side of the base of the proximal phalanx of 5th digit Flexes 5th digit @ the metacarpophalangeal joint Makes up the hypothenar eminence, middle layer Ulnar nerve, C8, T1
Flexor Digitorum Brevis Sides of middle phalanges of digits 1-4 Flexes middle phalanges (blank) Medial plantar n
Flexor Digitorum Longus Medial part of the posterior surface of the tibia, inferior to soleal line Base of the distal phalanges of the four lessor toes Flexes the four lessor toes, assists in plantar flexion & inversion; Supports long arch of foot Lower leg - posterior. Deep on posteromedial aspect of the calf, lateral to the tibialis posterior. Tendon travels around the calcaneous on the medial side Tibial nerve (S2,S3)
Flexor Digitorum Profundus Upper 3/4 anterior & medial shaft of ulna, medial coronoid process, interosseous membrane (connective tissue b/t the radius and ulna) Upper 3/4 anterior & medial shaft of ulna, medial coronoid process, interosseous membrane (connective tissue b/t the radi Base of the distal phalanges. Digits 2-5 Flexes 4 medial fingers, distal phalanges. Deep layer of anterior forearm Medial 1/2: Ulnar nerve
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Humeroulnar head: Medial epicondyle of humerus via common flexor tendon (CFT), Radial head: Anterior shaft of radius Medial and lateral sides of middle phalanges. Digits 2-5 Flexion of middle phalanges Intermediate/second level of anterior forearm Median nerve C7, C8, T1
Flexor Hallicus Longus Lower 2/3 posterior surface of fibula, inferior part of interosseous membrane Base of the distal phalanx of the great toe Flexes great toe, plantar flexion and inversion of foot. support medial long arch Lower leg - posterior. Powerful push-off m during walking. Travels around the calcaneous on the medial side Tibial nerve (S2,S3)
Flexor Hallucis Brevis Cuboid, lateral cuneiform Medial head: Medial base of proximal phalanx of great toe, Lateral head: Lateral base of proximal phalanx of great toe Flexes proximal phalanx of great toe (blank) Medial plantar L4, L5, S1
Flexor Pollicis Brevis Flexor retinaculum, trapezium, 1st metacarpal Base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb Flexes the metacarpophalengeal joint, assists in abduction & rotation of thumb Makes up the thenar eminence, Lateral head: Median nerve C6, C7 Medial head: Ulnar nerve C8, T1
Flexor Pollicis Longus Medial epicondyle of humerus, interosseous membraine, mid anterior shaft of radius Base of distal phalanx of thumb Flexion of the distal phalanx of the thumb Deep layer of anterior forearm Median nerve, Anterior Interosseous branch C8, T1
Gastrocnemius Lateral head: lateral condyle of the femur; Medial head: Popliteal surface of the femur ABOVE the medial condyle of the femur Inserts into the posterior surface of calcaneous via calcaneol tendon AKA achilles tendon Plantar flexion, knee flexion; inversion of foot Lower leg - posterior. Superficial of the calf Tibial nerve S1, S2
Gemellus - Inferior ischial tuberosity Common with tendon of obturator internus to medial surface of greater trochanter Lateral rotation of extended thigh; abducts flexed thigh; steadies femur Just inferior to superior gemellus inferior n. to quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus (L5, S1)
Gemellus - Superior Ischial spine Common with tendon of obturator internus to medial surface of greater trochanter Lateral rotation of extended thigh; abducts flexed thigh; steadies femur (blank) superior n to OI & superior gemellus (L5, S1)
Geniohyoid Inferior mental spine on the interior surface of the mandible Body of the hyoid bone Protrudes the hyoid bone & tongue Forms the Anterior Triangle of the neck - Suprahyoid muscles Branch of C1, through hypoglossal nerve
Gluteus Maximus Outer surface of the ilium, posterior sacrum & coccyx, subtuberous ligament Iliotibial band (ITB), some fibers to gluteal tuberosity of femur Hip extension, assists in lateral rotation; ext of trunk when LE are fixed Superficial covering of the posterior aspect of the hip joint Inferior gluteal L5, S1, S2 ventral rami
Gluteus Medius Outer surface of ilium b/w anterior & posterior gluteal lines Lateral surface of the greater trochanter of the femur Abduction & medially rotates thigh Intermediate, more lateral than gluteus maximus. Mostly covered by gluteus maximus - Test using "Stork Test" Superior gluteal L5, S1
Gluteus Minimus Outer surface of ilium between anterior & inferior gluteal lines Anterior surface of greater trochanter Abducts & medially rotates thigh Deep, more lateral than gluteus maximus. Covered by gluteus maximus and medius Superior gluteal n. L5, S1
Gracilis Body & inferior ramus of pubis superior medial surface of the tibia (pes anserinus) adducts thigh; flexes leg; assists with medial rotation of leg Adductor - on superficial level on the medial aspect of the thigh Obturator (anterior branch) L2,L3
Iliacus Upper 2/3 of iliac fossa, ala of sacrum, AIIS & adjacent ligaments Tendon of psoas major to Lessor trochanter of the femur Hip flexion Deepest level of the anterior pelvis. Commonly called the Iliopsoas muscle Femoral (L2, L3)
Iliocostalis Cervicis Angles of the ribs TVP C4-C6 Bilateral: extension Unilateral: lateral flexion (blank) Spinal nerves, dorsal primary division
Iliocostalis Thoracis Angles of lower 6 ribs Angles of upper 6 ribs & TVP of C7 Bilateral: extension Unilateral: lateral flexion Medial to iliocostalis lumborum Spinal nerves, dorsal primary division
Infraspinatus Infraspinous fossa of the scapula Middle facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus. Lateral rotation of humerus, stabilization Second level of Upper back Suprascapular C5, C6
Intercostales Externi Inferior border of upper 11 ribs Superior border of rib below Draws ribs UP, increasing thoracic volume Muscles of inspiration. Fibers run obliquely downward toward the costal cartilage Intercostals
Intercostales Interni From the cartilage to the angles of the upper 11 ribs Superior border of the rib below Draws ribs DOWN, decreasing thoracic volume Muscles of expiration. Fibers run obliquely upward toward the costal cartilage Intercostals
Interspinalis Spinous process of C3-C7, T2-T12, L2-L5 Spinous process of vertebrae above Extension of spine (blank) Spinal nerves, dorsal primary division
Latissimus Dorsi Through the Thoracolumbar fascia (T7-T12, L1-L5, S1-S5), Iliac crest, lower 3 or 4 ribs Floor of the Bicipital groove of the humerus Extension, adduction & medial rotation of the humerus Superficial level of lower back Thoracodorsal C6-C8
Levator Anguli Oris Canine fossa of maxilla Angle of the mouth Elevates the corner (angle) of the mouth Deep to Levator Labii Superioris Facial nerve, buccal branch
Levator Labii Superioris Angular head: Frontal process of the maxilla & zygomatic bone Infraorbital head: Lower margin of the orbit Angular head: Greater alar cartilage & skin of nose & upper lip Infraorbital head: Muscle of upper lip Angular head dilates the nares & both heads elevate the upper lip 2 heads - Angular, Infraorbital Facial nerve, buccal branch
Levator Palpebrae Superioris Inferior surface of the lessor wing of the sphenoid bone Skin of the upper eyelid Superior movement of upper eyelid (blank) Oculomotor nerve
Levator Scapula Tranverse processes C1-C4 Medial border of the scapula. Superior the spine & Inferior the superior angle of the scapula Elevates the scapula. Downward rotation (acromion process goes down) Second level of the upper back Dorsal Scapular C5
Longissimus Capitus TVP T1-T5, articular processes of C5-C7 Posterior portion of mastoid process Bilateral: extension of head Unilateral: rotation of head (blank) Middle & lower cervical nerves, dorsal primary division
Longissimus Cervicis TVP T1-T5 TVP C2-C6 Bilateral: extension Unilateral: lateral flexion (blank) Spinal nerves, dorsal primary division
Longissimus Thoracis Medial & lateral sacral crests, spinous processes & supraspinal ligaments of T11-L5 & medial part of iliac crest TVP of T1-T12, between tubercles, angles of lower 9-10 ribs Bilateral: extension Unilateral: lateral flexion (blank) Spinal nerves, dorsal primary division
Longus Capitis TVP of C3 - C6 Occiput bone anterior to the foramen magnum Flexes head Deep cervical spine - anterior surface of vertebra Forms Posterior Triangle of the neck C1 - C3
Longus Colli Superior Oblique part: TVP C3-C5 Inferior Oblique part: Bodies of T1-T3 Vertical part: Anterior bodies of C5-T3 Superior Oblique part: Anterior arch of atlas Inferior Oblique part: TVP C5 & C6 Vertical part: Anterior surface of C2 - C4 All three parts flex the cervical vertebrae Deep cervical spine - anterior surface of vertebrae, Forms Posterior Triangle of the neck Superior oblique part: TVP's to the Atlas Inferior oblique part: Bodies to TVP's above Vertical part: Bodies to bodies above C2 - C7
Lumbricales - Foot Tendon of flexor digitorum longus Dorsal surfaces of proximal phalanges Flexes proximal phalanges of 4 lessor toes (blank) 1st - medial plantar L4, L5 2nd-5th - lateral plantar
Lumbricals - Hand Tendons of flexor digitorum palmaris in the palm Lateral side of extensor digitorum on the fingers Extends the fingers & the interphalangeal joint Four muscles 1st - medial plantar n; lateral 3 - lateral plantar n
Masseter Zygomatic process of maxilla, medial & inferior surfaces of zygomatic arch Angle & ramus of the mandible, lateral surface of coronoid process of the mandible Closes lower jaw & clenches teeth (blank) Trigeminal nerve – mandibular division
Mentalis Incisive fossa of the mandible Skin of the chin Raises & protrudes the lower lip & wrinkles the skin of the chin. John Travolta chin Facial nerve, mandibular branch
Multifids Sacral Spine - along the sacral foramina up to the PSIS Lumbar Spine - mamillary process Thoracic Spine - TVP's Cervical Spine - articular processes of C4-C7 Spinous process 2 to 4 vertebrae above Bilateral: extension Unilateral: contralateral rotation of spine (blank) Spinal nerves, dorsal primary division
Mylohyoid Inside surface of the mandible from the symphysis to the molars, mylohyoid line Hyoid bone Elevates the hyoid, raises the floor of the mouth & tongue Forms the Anterior Triangle of the neck - Suprahyoid muscles Trigeminal nerve, mandibular division
Nasalis Transverse part: Middle of the maxilla Alar part: Greater alar cartilage, skin on nose Transverse part: Muscle of opposite side over the bridge of the nose Alar part: Skin on the point of the nose Alar part: Skin on the point of the nose Maintain the opening of the external nares during forceful inspiration 2 parts - transverse & alar Facial nerve, buccal branch
Obliquus Capitis Inferior Spinous Process of C2 - Axis TVP of C1 - Atlas Ipsilateral rotation - affects only C1 & C2 (blank) Suboccipital nerve
Obliquus Capitis Superior TVP of C1 - Atlas Occiput between inferior & superior nuchal lines Extends head & ipsilateral lateral flexion (blank) Suboccipital nerve
Obturator Externus margins of obturator foramen & obturator membrane Trochanteric fossa of femur Lateral rotation of thigh; steadies head of femur (blank) Obturator nerve (posterior division) L3, L4
Obturator Internus Pelvic surface of obturator membrane and surrounding bones Common tendon with superior & inferior gamelli to medial surface of greater trochanter of femur Lateral rotation of extended thigh; abducts flexed thigh; steadies the femoral head Obturator internus, superior & inferior gemellus form a common tendon to insert into the upper border of the greater trochanter of the femur n. to oburator internus & superior gemellus (L5, S1)
Omohyoid Superior border of the scapula, just medial to the suprascapular notch Inferior: Bound to the clavicle by the central tendon Superior:Continues to the body of the hyoid bone Depresses hyoid Forms the Anterior Triangle of the neck - Infrahyoid muscles Ansa cervicalis, C2-C3
Opponens Digiti Minimi Anterior surface of flexor retinaculum, hook of hamate Entire length of the medial border of the 5th metacarpalRotates & draws 5th metacarpal forward & assists in flexion of carpometacarpal joint (wrist) (blank) Ulnar nerve C8, T1
Opponens Pollicis Flexor retinaculum, tubercle of the trapezium Lateral border of 1st metacarpal Rotates the thumb into opposition with fingers Makes up the thenar eminence, deep to abductor pollicis Median nerve C6, C7
Orbicularis Oculi Orbital part: Frontal bone, maxilla Palpebral part: Medial palpebral ligament Lacrimal part: Lacrimal bone Orbital part: Continues around the orbit back to the origin Palpebral part: Lateral palpebral ligament into the zygomatic bone Lacrimal part: Lateral palpebral raphe Orbital - strong eye closure Palpebral (eyelid) - gentle eye closure Lacrimal - draws lacrimal canal onto eye surface 3 parts Facial nerve, temporal & zygomatic branch
Orbicularis Oris Lateral band: Alveolar border of the maxilla Medial band: Septum of the nose Inferior portion: Lateral to the midline of the mandible Becomes continuous with other muscles at the angle of the mouth into itself Closure & protrusion of lips 3 parts - Lateral band, Medial band, Inferior portion Facial nerve, buccal & mandibular branch
Palmar Interossei (blank) (blank) Adduct fingers toward center of third finger at metacarpophalangeal joints, assists in flexion of fingers (blank) Ulnar nerve C8, T1
Palmaris Brevis Flexor retinaculum, palmar aponeurosis Skin of the palm Corrugates the skin under the palm (blank) Ulnar nerve, C8
Palmaris Longus Medial epicondyle of humerus via CFT Palmar aponeurosis Flexes the hand Superficial level of anterior forearm. Median nerve C6, C7
Pectineus superior ramus of the pubis pectineal line of femur, inferior to lesser trochanter adducts & flexes thigh; assists with medial rotation of thigh Second level of the anterior art of the proximal & medial aspect of the thigh Femoral n (L2, L3); may receive brand from obturator n.
Pectoralis Major Medial ½ of clavicle, sternum (manubrium & sternal body), upper 6 costal cartilages, aponeurosis of the external oblique (abs) Lateral lip of the bicipital groove of the humerus Adduction, flexion, medial rotation of arm @ shoulder Superficial level of Upper chest Medial & lateral Pectoral nerves
Pectoralis Minor Anterior surface of ribs 3, 4, 5 Corocoid process of scapula Draws scapula down and forward Deepest level in Upper chest. Deep to Pec major Medial Pectoral nerve
Peroneus Brevis Inferior 2/3 lateral surface of the fibula dorsal suface of tuberosit on Lateral side of the 5th metatarsal evertion of foot, weak Plantar flexor Lower leg - lateral. Easily palpated Superficial peroneal n (L5, S1, S2)
Peroneus Longus the head & superior 2/3 lateral surface of the fibula base of 1st metatarsal & medial cuneiform Plantar flexes ankle & everts foot, depresses the base of the 1st metatarsal more superficial than brevis Superficial peroneal n ( L5, S1, S2)
Peroneus Tertius Inferior 1/3 anterior surface of the fibula & interosseous membrane Dorsal surface of the base of the 5th metatarsal Doriflexion of ankle & assists in eversion of foot Lower leg - anterior. Superficial, antereolateral surface of leg deep peroneal n (L5, S1)
Piriformis Anterior sacrum, sacrotuberous ligament superior border of the greater trochanter Lateral rotation of extended thigh, abducts flexed thigh; stedies femoral head in acetabulum Runs behind the ilium nerve to piriformis (S1, S2)
Plantar Interossei Base and medial sides of 3, 4, 5 metatarsals Medial sides of bases of proximal phalanges of 3 -5th toes Adducts toes, flexes proximal phalanges (blank) Lateral plantar S1, S2
Plantaris inferior end of lateral supracondylar line of femur & oblique popliteal ligament posterior surface of calaneous via achilles tendon weak assist of plantar flexion of ankle, knee flexion Lower leg - posterior. Absent in 10% of people Tibial nerve S1,S2
Platysma Subcutaneous fascia of the upper 1/4 of the chest Subcutaneous fascia & muscle of the chin, jaw & mandible Depresses & draws lower lip laterally (blank) Facial nerve, cervical branch
Popliteus Lateral surface of the lateral condyle of the femur & lat meniscus posterior surface of the tibia superior to soleal line Weakly flexes knee; With foot free rotates knee medially. Unlocks the knee Lower leg - posterior. Deep layer, very short muscle. Tibial nerve L4, L5, S1
Procerus Fascia over the nasal bone & lateral nasal cartilage Skin between the eyebrows Draws down the medial part of the eyebrows & wrinkles the nose (blank) Facial nerve, buccal branch
Pronator Quadratus Anterior, distal shaft of Ulna Distal antereolateral surface of radius Pronation of forearm and hand Deepest level of anterior forearm. Forms band across wrist. Origin on Ulna and the insertion is slightly more distal on the Radius Median nerve, anterior interosseous branch C8, T1
Pronator Teres Humeral head: Medial supracondylar ridge, medial epicondyle of the humerus Ulnar head: Coronoid process Mid lateral surface of radius Pronation, flexion of forearm (blank) Median nerve C6, C7
Psoas Major sides of T12-L5 vertebrae and discs & transvers processes of all lumbar vertebrae Lessor trochanter of the femur Hip flexion, stabalizes hip jt with psoas minor & iliacus Deepest level of the anterior lumbar spine. Commonly called the Iliopsoas muscle L1,2,3 ventral rami
Pterygoid-Lateral Superior head: lateral surface of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone Inferior head: lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate Condyle of the mandible & tempomandibular joint Opens jaw , protrudes & moves mandible sideways (blank) Trigeminal nerve – mandibular division
Pterygoid-Medial Medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone, palentine bone, tuberosity of maxilla Medial surface of the ramus & angle of the mandible Closes lower jaw & clenches teeth Deep to masseter. Palpable from the inside Trigeminal nerve – mandibular division
Quadratus Femoris Lateral border of ischial tuberosity Quadrate tubercle on intertrochanteric crest of femur and inferior to it Lateral rotation of thigh; steadies the femoral head (blank) n to quadratus femoris & inferior gemellus (L5, S1)
Quadratus Lumborum medial 1/2 of inferior border or rib 12; tips of lumbar transverse processes iliolumbar lig & internal lip of iliac crest fixes 12th rib during inspiration, Lateral flexion, raises one hip, bilateral assists in lumbar ext (blank) ventral rami T12, L1-4
Quadratus Plantae Medial head: Medial calcaneus Lateral head: Lateral border of the inferior calcaneous Lateral margin of tendon of flexor digitorum Flexes distal phalanx of 4 lessor toes (blank) Lateral plantar S1, S2
Rectus Capitus Anterior Anterior base of TVP of the Atlas Occipital bone anterior to Foramen Magnum Flexes head Deep cervical spine - anterior surface of vertebra C2, C3
Rectus Capitus Lateralis TVP of the atlas Jugular process of the occipital bone Bends head laterally Deep cervical spine - anterior surface of vertebra C2, C3
Rectus Capitus Posterior Major C2 -Axis Lateral portion of inferior nuchal line Extends head & ipsilateral rotation (blank) Suboccipital nerve
Rectus Capitus Posterior Minor Posterior arch of C1 - Atlas Medial portion of the inferior nuchal line Extends head (blank) Suboccipital nerve
Rectus Femoris AIIS & ilium superior to acetabulum base of patella via quadriceps tendon to Tibial tuberosity via patellar tendon Extends leg at knee joint & flexes thigh at hip; steadies hip joint Below sartorius, most superficial quadracep in the middle of the anterior thigh Femoral L2, L3, L4
Rhomboid Major Spinous processes of T2-T5 Medial edge of the scapula. Inferior spine of the scapula Retraction, downward rotation of the scapula (elevation of medial border) Second level of the upper back Dorsal Scapular C5
Rhomboid Minor Spinous processes of C7-T1 Root of the spine of the scapula. Superior rhomboideus major Retraction, downward rotation of the scapula (elevation of medial border) Second level of the upper back Dorsal Scapular C5
Risorius Fascia over the masseter Skin at the angle of the mouth Retracts the angle of the mouth (grinning) (blank) Facial nerve, mandibular branch
Rotators TVP of each vertebrae Spinous process of vertebrae Bilateral: extension Unilateral: contralateral rotation of spine (blank) Spinal nerves, dorsal primary division
Sartorius ASIS & supreior part of notch inferior to it superior part of the medial surface of the tibia (cover tendons of gracilis & semitendinosus: pes anserinus) Flexes, abducts & laterally rotates femur at the thigh. flexes leg at knee joint Longest muscle in the body. Superficial, crossing the anterior thigh from lateral to medial Femoral L2, L3
Scalenes - Anterior TVP C3 - C6 Inner border of first rib - the scalene tubercle Unilateral: Ipsilateral lateral flexion & contralateral rotation. Raises 1st rib in inspiration, chest breathing Bilateral: Flexes neck Forms Posterior Triangle of the neck Ventral rami of cervical nerve C1 - C8
Scalenes - Middle TVP C2 - C7 Upper surface of 1st rib Unilateral: Ipsilateral flexion & contralateral rotation. Raises 1st rib in inspiration Bilateral: Flexes neck Forms Posterior Triangle of the neck Ventral rami of cervical nerve C1-C8
Scalenes - Posterior TVP C5 - C7 Outer surface of 2nd rib Bilateral - flexes neck Unilateral - ipsilateral flexion & contralateral rotation. Raises 2nd rib in inspiration Forms Posterior Triangle of the neck Ventral rami of the lower cervical nerves
Semimembranosus Ischial tuberosity Posterior part of the medial tibial condlye extend thigh;Flexes knee; medially rotates leg at knee joint; extend trunk when feet planted Deep to semitendinosus Sciatic nerve, tibial division L5, S1, S2
Semispinalis Capitus Ligmentum Nuchae-C7 and T1-3 occiptal bone and mastoid process o temporal bone Bilateral: extension of the head Unilateral: rotation of the head (blank) Spinal nerves, dorsal primary division
Semispinalis Cervicis TVP of T1-T6 Spinous processes of C2-C5 Bilateral: extension Unilateral: rotation (blank) Spinal nerves, dorsal primary division
Semispinalis Thoracis TVP T6-T10 Spinous processes of C6-T4 Bilateral: extension Unilateral: rotation (blank) Spinal nerves, dorsal primary division
Semitendinosus Ischial tuberosity Medial surface of superior tibia (pes anserinus) extend thigh; Flexes knee, medially rotates leg at knee joint; extend trunk when feet planted (reverse axn) Superficial to semimembranosus, provides medial support Sciatic nerve, tibial division L5, S1, S2
Serratus Anterior Outer surface and anterior border of first 8 or 9 ribs Anterior, medial border of scapula Downward rotation, protraction and stabilization of scapula Deepest level of lateral thorax and upper back Long Thoracic nerve, C5-C7
Serratus Posterior Inferior Sp. Pr. T11 - L3 Inferior border of lower 4 ribs Pulls ribs down, resisting the force of the diaphram Muscle of expiration T9 - T12
Serratus Posterior Superior Ligamentum nuchae, Sp. Pr. C7 - T3 Superior borders of ribs 2 - 5 Raises ribs during inspiration, increases thoracic volume Muscle of inspiration T1-T4
Soleus Posterior aspect of head of fibula, sup 1/4 of post surface of fibula, and soleal line of tibia & medialborder of tibia posterior surface of Calcaneous via the achilles tendon Plantar flexion; inversion of foot Lower leg - posterior. Second level of calf, immediately below the gastrocnemious Tibial nerve S1, S2
Spinalis Cervicis Ligamentum nuchae, spinous process C7 Spinous process of Axis (C2) Extends cervical spine (blank) Spinal nerves, dorsal primary division
Spinalis Thoracis Spinous process of T11-L2 Spinous processes of T1-T8 Extends thoracic spine (blank) Spinal nerves, dorsal primary division
Splenius Capitus ligamentum nuchae, C7 and T1-3 occiptal bone and mastoid process of temporal bone Bilateral: extend, hyperextend the head Unilateral: lateral flexion, ipsilateral rotation (blank) Middle & lower cervical nerve, lateral branches of dorsal primary division
Splenius Cervicis Spinous process of T3-T6 TVP C1-C3 Bilateral: extend, hyperextend the head Unilateral: lateral flexion, ipsilateral rotation (blank) (blank)
Sternocleidomastoid Sternal head: Manubrium of the sternum Clavicular head: Medial part of the clavicle Mastoid process, lateral 1/2 of the superior nuchal line of the occiput Unilateral : Ipsilateral lateral flexion, contralateral rotation Bilateral: Flexes head & neck (blank) Accessory nerve (CNXI), spinal part C2, C3
Sternohyoid Medial end of the clavicle & manubrium Body of the hyoid bone Depresses the hyoid bone Forms the Anterior Triangle of the neck - Infrahyoid muscles Ansa cervicalis C1- C3 "U-shaped"
Sternothyroid Dorsal surface of the manubrium Lamina of the thyroid cartilage Depresses thyroid cartilage Forms the Anterior Triangle of the neck - Infrahyoid muscles Ansa cervicalis, C1-C3
Stylohyoid Styloid process of the temporal bone Hyoid bone Draws the hyoid backwards & elevates the tongue Forms the Anterior Triangle of the neck - Suprahyoid muscles Facial nerve
Subclavius 1st rib Inferior surface of medial clavicle Depress the clavicle (very small movement) (blank) C5, C6
Subscapularis Supscapular fossa Lesser tubercle of humerus Medial rotation of humerus, stabilization Deepest level of upper back. Upper & Lower Subscapular C5, C6
Supinator Lateral epicondyle of humerus, lateral ligament of elbow Upper 1/3 of dorsolateral surface of radius Supinates forearm Deepest level of the dorsal aspect of the forearm, passes obliquely from lateral to medial Radial nerve C6
Supraspinatus Supraspinous fossa of the scapula Superior part of the Greater Tubercle of humerus Initiates Abduction (10-15 degrees). Stabilization. Second level of Upper back. Forms part of SITS group Suprascapular C5
Temporalis Temporal fossa, consists of the frontal, temporal & parietal bones of skull Coronoid process, anterior border of ramus of the mandible Closes lower jaw & clenches teeth (blank) Trigeminal nerve – mandibular division
Temporoparietals Fascia over the ear Lateral border of the galea aponeurotica Raises ears, tightens scalp Deep to temporal fascia Facial nerve - temporal branch
Tensor Fasciae Latae ASIS & anterior part of iliac crest Iliotibial band (ITB) to lateral tibial condyle abducts, medially rotate, and flexes the thigh; support femur on tibia when standing, but no direct axn on leg; steady trunk on thigh Superficial on the lateral thigh Superior gluteal (L4, L5)
Teres Major Lower 1/3 lateral border of scapula. Near the inferior angle Medial lip of the bicipital groove Medial rotation of humerus, Adduction, extension Second level of Upper back Lower Subscapular C5, C6
Teres Minor Upper 2/3 lateral border of scapula Inferior facet of the greater tubercle of humerus. Just below the infraspinatus Lateral rotation of humerus, stabilization Second level of Upper back Axillary C5
Thyrohyoid Lamina of the thyroid cartilage Greater cornu of the hyoid bone Depresses the hyoid or raises the thyroid Forms the Anterior Triangle of the neck - Infrahyoid muscles C1 through the hypoglossal nerve
Tibialis Anterior Lateral condyle of tibia, superior 1/2 of lateral surface of tibia & interosseous membrane Medial & plantar surface of the 1st cuneiform (medial) & base of the 1st metatarsal Doriflexion of ankle & weak invertor of foot Lower leg - anterior. Most superficial, anteriolateral surface of the tibia deep peroneal n (L4,5)
Tibialis Posterior interosseous membrane, posterior surface of tibia inferior to soleal line, & post surface of fibula Navicular tubercle, cuboid, all cuneiform bones, metatarsals 2-4 & sustentaculum tali (all of the tarsal bones execpt talus) MAIN invertor of foot, Plantar flexion; resists collapse of arch Lower leg - posterior. Deepest and between flexor hallicus longus and flexor digitorum longus. Tendon travels around the calcaneous on the medial side Tibial nerveL4, L5
Trapezius Base of skull; Superior nuchal line, occipital protuberance, ligamentum nuchae, spinous process of C7-T12 Lateral 1/3 clavicle, acromion process, spine of the scapula Upper portion: elevation & rotation of scapula. Lower portion: depress scapula Superficial level of the Upper back Accessory C3, C4
Triceps Brachii - Lateral head Upper ½ posterior shaft of humerus, above the radial groove Olecranon process Extends forearm Superficial layer on the posterior arm Radial C7, C8
Triceps Brachii - Long head Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula Olecranon process Extends forearm, assists in adduction of shoulder if arm is abducted Superficial layer on the posterior arm Radial C7, C8
Triceps Brachii - Medial head Lower ½ posterior shaft of humerus, below the radial groove Olecranon process Extends forearm Superficial layer of the posterior arm Radial C7, C8
Vastus Intermedius Anterior & lateral surfaces of body of the femur base of patella via quadriceps tendon to Tibial tuberosity via patellar tendon Knee extension Deep to biceps femoris, close to the anterior shaft of the femur Femoral L2, L3, L4
Vastus Lateralis greater trochanter and lateral lip of lineas aspera of femur base of patella via quadriceps tendon to Tibial tuberosity via patellar tendon Knee extension Superficial on the lateral side of the thigh Femoral L2, L3, L4
Vastus Medialis Intertrochanteric line & medial lip of the linea aspera base of patella via quadriceps tendon to Tibial tuberosity via patellar tendon Knee extension Superficial on the medial side of the thigh Femoral L2, L3, L4
Zygomaticus Major Zygomatic bone Angle of the mouth Draws angle of mouth up & back (laughing) Lateral to Zygomaticus Minor Facial nerve, buccal branch
Zygomaticus Minor Zygomatic bone Upper lip lateral to levator labii superioris Forms the nassolabial furrow Medial to Zygomaticus Major Facial nerve, buccal branch
Levator Ani (3 parts) puborectalis, pubococcygues (main part), iliococcygeus (blank) supports pelvic viscera, resists thrusts of increased intra-abdominal pressure (coughing, etc) (blank) perineal brances of S3, 4
psoas minor sides of T12-L1 vertebrae an disc pectineal line & iliopectineal eminence acts with psoas major & iliacus to flex the thigh at the hip and stabilize the joint tendon like L1, L2 ventral rami
Extensor Hallicus Brevis from floor of sinus tarsi, and external retinaculum great toe extends great toe (blank) deep peroneal n
Created by: MedAlberta