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Chapter 13 A

Flash Cards for Ch. 13 for Anatomy and Physiology for Mr. Crick

QuestionAnswer
Compare and contract how endocrine and exocrine glands work. The endocrine system is made of several glands and hormone-secreting cells. Circulates blood that delivers hormones to almost all of the cells in the body. Exocrine glands secrete their products into ducts that carry the secretions into a body cavity.
Roles of Target Cells and Receptor Sites Hormones that travel throughout the body only affect this. They have 10,000 of these for one hormone.
Lipid Soluble and Water Soluble Hormones This diffused through the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and binds to their receptors within target cells. Starts at the transport protein in the bloodstream. The other can't diffuse through the lipid bilayer. It binds to receptors that protrude.
Hormone Secretions 1. Signals from the ner. system. Ex. Nerve impulses to the adrenal medullae regulates the release of epi. and norepi. 2. Chemical changes in the blood. Ex. Blood Ca2 level controls this. 3. Other hormones. Ex. A hormone from the ACH starts by another.
Human Growth Hormone (hGH) Helps synthesis & secretion of Insulinlike Growth Factors (IGF) starts protein syntesis, keeps muscle & bone mass, helps injuries & tisses. Growth HormoneReleasing Hormone(GHRH)helps secretion of hormones. Growth HormoneInhibiting Hormone (GHIH) stops it.
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Stimulats the synthesis and secretion of this kind of hormone. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) controls this kind of secretion.
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Each month the first starts many ovarian follicles and the second triggers ovulation. After, it begins forming the corpus luteum in the ovary. They start these cells to secrete estrogens. Goradotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) starts release of hormones.
Oxytocin During labor this causes enhancement contraction of smooth muscle cells in the wall of the uterus. After delivery it stimulates milk ejection.
Prolactin (PRL) Initiates and maintains milk production by the mammary glands, not in males. Prolactin-Inhibiting Hormone (PIH) suppresses release of this most of the time. Prolactin-Releasing Hormone (PRH) stimulates this release.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Decrease urine production. Causes the kidneys to retain more water, thus decreasing urine volume. Decreases the water loss through sweating and causes constriction of arterioles.
T3 and T4 (Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine) The first contains three atoms of iodine and the second contains four. Thryoid hormones. The second circulates blood and enters cells throughout the body then most of it is converted to the first by removal of one iodine atom.
Glucagon Alpha cells secrete this hormone. Increases blood glucose levels when it falls below normal, which provides neurons with glucose for ATP production.
Insulin Helps glucose move into cells which lowers blood glucose level when its too high.
Cortisol The most abundant glucocorticoid. Breaks down proteins, forms glucose. breaks down triglycerides, anti-inflammatory effects, and depresses immune responses.
Epinephrine (Adrenaline) Augment the fight-or-flight response. Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that produces actions similar tothose that result from sympathetic situation. Heart.
Norepinephrine (Noradrenaline) Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that produces actions similar to those that result from sympathetic stimulation. Everything but the heart.
Estrogen Female sex hormones. Govern development of oocytes, maintenance of female reproductive structures, and appearance of secondary sex characteristics.
Progesterone Female sex hormones. Helps prepare the endometrium of the uterus for implantation of a fertilized ovum and the mammary glands for milk secretion.
Cushings Disease Hypersecretion of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. Breakdown of muscle proteins and redistribution of body fat, resulting in spindly arms and legs. Hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, weakness, hypertension, likely to get infections comes with this disease
Addisons Disease Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids and aldosterone. Mental lethargy, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, hypoglycemia, and muscular weakness all come with this disease
Type 1 Diabetes Insulin levels are low because the person's immune system destroys the pancreatic beta cells. Younger than 20. Ketoacidosis.
Type 2 Diabetes Over 35 and overweight. High glucose levels in the blood.
Hyperinsulinism Diabetic injects too much insulin. Hypoglycemia, which may lead to insulin shock.
Lact(o) Prefix for milk
Acromegaly Enlarged and distorted extremities of the face.
Acidosis Accumulation of acids in the blood
Anorexia Loss of appetite
Cachexia State of malnutrition, wasting
Diaphoresis Excessive sweating
Emaciation Extremely thin, wasting
Gangrene Death of tissue secondary to low oxygen levels
Hypophysectomy Removal of pituitary gland
Neuropathy Disease of nerves, common with diabetes
Created by: tjneo90