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HA Ch. 5

The Skeletal System

cartilage locations external ear & nose
articular cartilages ends of bones and movable joints
costal cartilages connect ribs to the sternum
PIT pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs, trachea, larynx, epiglottis
cartilage is made up of a firm, gel-like matrix that has polysaccharides called chondroitin sulfate
chondroitin sulfate combines with proteins to form proteoglycans
chondrocytes mature cartilage cells that occupy the lucanae and are surrounded by extracellular matrix of ground substance, fibers and water
physical properties of cartilage depend on... nature of matrix (water content can be from 60-80% of its makeup)
collagen fibers provide tensile strength
extracellular fibers and ground substance confer flexibility and resilience
cartilage is avascular but not innervated
cartilage tissue is surrounded by a fibrous perichondrium (outer DICT inner cellular layer)
perichondrium resists outward expansion of cartilage under pressure
perichondrium functions in the growth and repair of cartilage
types of cartilage hyaline, elastic, fibro
hyaline cartilage most abundant in body, collagen fibers predominate, provides support through flexibility and resilience
elastic cartilage elastic fibers predominate, tolerates repeated bending (external ear)
fibrocartilage thick collagen fibers predominate, resists strong compression and strong tension forces
growth mechanisms appositional (outside) interstitial (from within)
appositional growth chondroblasts in perichondrium undergo repeated cycles of division to produce new cartilage tissue
chondroblasts cartilage-forming stem cells
stem cells of the inner layer differentiate into chondroblasts
immature chondroblasts... secrete matrix
as the matrix grows... more chondroblasts are incorporated (become mature chondrocytes) and are replaced by divisions of stem cells in the inner layer
this mechanism of outside growth... gradually increases the outer dimensions of the cartilage
interstitial growth occurs when chondrocytes within the cartilage divide and their daughter cells secrete new matrix
As daughter cells secrete additional matrix.. they seperate and consequently expand the cartilage from within
neither grown mechanism... occurs in adult cartilage
most cartilages... cannot repair themselves after a severe injury
bone support weight of the body and cradles its soft organs (attachment of soft tissue and organs)
protection protects organs
movement act as levers for muscles to pull on
bones do mineral storage of calcium mainly and also phosphate
blood-cell formation red bone marrow makes the blood cells, yellow bone marrow is a site for fat storage
classification of bones long, short, flat, irregular
long bones elongatedshape (not based on overall size)
short bones roughly cube-shaped, includes sesamoid bones
sesamoid bones small, flat, round. develop inside tendons (kneecap)
flat bones thin, flattened, usually somewhat curved shape; cranial bones
irregular bones various shapes that don't fit into previous categories (hip bones)
pneumatized bones hollow and contain numerous air pockets
parietal bones internal and external tables, seperated by a spongy bone layer called the diploe
sutural bones small, flat, oddly shaped and found betweenthe flat bones of the skull in the suture line.
compact bone external layer, smooth, homogenous appearance, dense and solid
spongy bone cancellous bone (internal)honeycomb of trabeculae with open spaces in between, which are filled with red and yellow bone marrow (struts and plates)
trabeculae connective tissue partition that subdivides an organ
diaphysis shaft or long axis of bone
epiphyses bone ends (proximal and distal), each articulating (joint) surface is covered with articular cartilage
epiphyseal line remnant of epiphyseal plate, which is a disc of hyaline cartilage that grows during childhood
metaphysis area between the epiphyses and diaphysis
nutrient arteries and veins together run through... nutrient foramen - a hole in wall of diaphysis - to supply the diaphysis
arteries nourish.. the bone marrow and spongy bone, their branches extend outward to help supply compact bone
epiphyseal arteries and veins serve each epiphysis in the same way
medullary or marrow cavity center of diaphysis, contains no bone tissue and is filled with yellow bone marrow and loose connctive tissue
skeletal membranes internal and external bone coverings: periosteum, endosteum
periosteum membrane of connective tissue that covers the entire outer surface of each bone except the ends of epiphyses
periosteum is the superficial layer of... DICT
periosteum's deep layer has osteoblasts (bone-depositing) and osteoclasts (bone destroying)
periosteum is richly innervated and vascularized!! (supplied by branches from nutrient and epiphyseal vessels)
sharpey's fibers thick bundles of collagen that secure the periosteum to underlying bone
sharpey's fibers also provide insertion points for tendons and ligaments
enodsteum thinner membrane of CT that covers the trabeculae of spongy bone and lines the medullary cavity
endosteum also contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts
short, irregular, and flat bone's structure... same composition as long bones
long bone composition compact bone covered by periosteum, spongy bone covered by endosteum, NO diaphysis, NO medullary cavity, trabeculae of spongy bone is filled with bone marrow
in flat bones diploe = internal spongy bone
compression stress loading off center threatens to bend the bone by compressing the bone on one side and stretching it on the other side
strong compact bone tissue in external region... resists maximal compression and tension forces
compression and tension forces... cancel eachother out in internal spongy regions
spongy bone and marrow cavities serve... to lighten the heavy skeleton and accommodate bone marrow
trabeculae of spongy bone align along.. stress lines in origanized pattern to provide support along the stress lines
osteon (mature, compact bone) haversian system: basic functional unit that is long, cylindrical and oriented parallel to the long axis of bones and to the main compression stresses
osteon is also referred to as the weight bearing pillars
general structure of osteon a central canal is surrounded by concentric lamellae
concentric lamellae bulls eye target around central canal
interstitial lamellae fill spaces between osteons in compact bone
cicrumferential lamellae external and internal surfaces of bone
lamella concentric layer of bone matrix in which all the collagen fibers run in a single direction
central canal lined by endosteum, vascularized, innervated
perforating (volkmann's) canals connect blood and nerve supply of periosteum to that of the central canals and the medullary cavity
osteocytes spider-shaped mature bone cells that occupy lacunae
osteocyte's spider legs processes occupy
cicrumferential lamellae external and internal surfaces of bone
lamella concentric layer of bone matrix in which all the collagen fibers run in a single direction
central canal lined by endosteum, vascularized, innervated
canaliculi mode of communication and supplying osteocytes with nutrients
osteocytes are essential for... maintaing the bone matrix
spongy bone's trabeculae contains... several layers of lamellae and osteocytes, but NO OSTEONS or blood vessels of its own
osteocytes are nourished by... capillaries located in the endosteum surrounding the trabeculae
what are the bone cells? osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts
osteocytes mature bone cells that are completely surrounded by hard bone matrix; occupy lacunae
osteoblasts immature, bone-forming cells, synthesize osteoid via the process of osteogenesis
osteogenesis production of a new bone
osteoclasts large multi-nucleated cells that help dissolve the bony matrix through the process of osteolysis
osteoclasts also regulate calcium and phosphate concentrations in body fluids
osteolysis erosion processes that increase calcium and phosphate concentrations in body fluids
extracellular matrix of CT, collagen fibers, ground substance, water and mineral crystals consists... largely of crystals of hydroxyapatite
organic part of the extracellular matrix is comprised of... collagen fibers, which provides tensile strength
osteoid organic part of matrix BEFORE it mineralizes or calcifies
inorganic part is comprised of... crystals of CALCIUM PHOSPHATE SALTS which precipitate in the matrix and make the bone hard and able to resist compression
bone development osteogenesis or ossifications
ossification formation of bone tissue
calcification deposition of calcium salts within a tissue
intramembraneous ossification dermal ossification, of embryonic mesenchyme
IO forms...and begins when... membrane bones...osteoblasts differentiate within a mesenchymal or fibrous connective tissue, at an ossification center
IO ultimately produces... spongy or compact bone
what first appears in IO? network of bone tissues woven around capillaries (woven bone tissue) that gets remodeled into a flat bone
endochondrial ossification of a hyaline cartilage model (late in embryonic period)
EO forms... all other bones = endochondral or cartilage bones
EO starts with the formation of cartilaginous model
hyaline cartilage model is... gradually replaced by osseous tissue
the length of a developing bone... increases at the epiphyseal cartilage which seperates the diaphysis from the epiphysis
new cartilage is added... at the epiphyseal side
osseous tissue replaces... older cartilage at diaphyseal side
time of closure of epiphyseal cartilage... varies among bones and individuals
bone diameter grows via... appositional growth at the outer surface of the bone
chondrocytes of growing cartilage of the epiphyses and the postnatal epiphyseal plates are organized... into several zones, which allow rapid growth
organization of the zones within the epiphyseal cartilage zone of resting, proliferating, hypertrophy, calcification (RATS PREFER HOUSES WITH CHEESE)
postnatal growth of endochondral bones lengthen during growth through epiphyseal platae cartilages, which close in early adult hood
bones increase in width through appositional growth
in appositional growth, the periosteum adds... bone tissue to its surfaces, while the endosteum's osteoclasts remove bone from the internal surface of the diaphysis wall
new bone tissue is continuously... deposited and reabsorbed
deposition and reabsorbtion is in response to... hormonal or mechanical stresses
mineral turnover and recycling allow... bone to adapt to new stresses
calcium is the most... common mineral in the body (>98% of it is located in skeleton) and is an important mineral for bone health
spongy bone is entirely replaced...compact bone... every 3-4 years; every 10 years
bone deposition osteoblasts secrete osteoid on bone surfaces and calcium phosphate salts crystallize within osteoids
bone reabsorption osteoclasts break down bone by secreting acid and lysosomal enzymes
bone reabsorption releases... calcium and phosphate into the blood
PTH parathyroid hormone; increases reabsorption in response to decreased calcium levels in body fluids
compression forces and gravity... act on skeleton to help maintain bone strength, as bones thicken at sites of stress
simple fractures do not penetrate the skin
compoud fractures penetrate the skin
repairing bone fractures through.... open reduction or closed reduction
reduction realignment of broken bone ends
what needs to remain intact to heal a fracture blood supply, endosteum and periosteum
healing stages fracture hematoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, bony callus formation, bone remodeling of external callus
colles' fracture break in distal portion of radius
pott's fracture occurs at the ankle and affects both the tibia and the fibula
comminuted fracture shatters the affected area into a multitude of bony fragments
compression fracture occur in vertebrae subjected to extreme stresses; more common when bones are weakened by osteoporosis
depressed fracture broken portion is pressed inward, typical of skull fracture
displaced fracture break that produces new and abnormal bone arrangement
nondisplaced fracture retains the normal alignment of the bones or fragnments
epiphyseal fracture tends to occur where the bone matrix is undergoing calcification and chondrocytes are dying
greenstick fracture only one side of the shaft if broken, and the other is bent; generally occurs in children whose long bones have yet to ossify fully
spiral fracture produced by twisting stresses that spread along the length of the bone
transverse fracture a break that occurs along the long axis of the affected bone
osteoprogenitor cells divide to produce daughter cells that differentiate into osteoblasts
dermal bones membrane bones
osteopenia inadequate ossification
process any projection or bump
ramus extension of a bone marking
trochanter large, rough projection
tuberosity rough projection
tubercle small, rounded projection
crest prominent ridge
line low ridge
spine a pointed process
head expanded articular end of an epiphysis
neck narrower connection between epiphysis and diaphysis
condyle smooth, rounded articular process
trochlea smooth, grooved articular process shaped like a pulley
facet small, flat, articular surface
fossa shallow depression
sulcus narrow groove
foramen rounded passageway for blood vessels/nerves
fissure an elongated cleft
meatus or canal passageway through substance of a bone
sinus or antrum chamber w/i a bone, filled with air
Created by: handrzej



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