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Chapter 14- Blood

Anatomy and Physiology Note Cards

QuestionAnswer
Whole Blood is made of these 2 components Plasma and Red Blood Cells
Blood Plasma is made of these 3 components Proteins, Water, and Other Solutes
The 3 main proteins found in blood Albumins, Globulins, and Fibrinogen
The 6 solutes found in the blood Electrolytes, Nutrients, Gases, Regulatory Substances, Vitamins, and Waste Products
Definition of a formed element Cellular components of the blood
3 classes of formed elements Platelets, white blood cells, and red blood cells
5 classes of white blood cells Neutrophils, Lumphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, and Basophils
Relationship between Erythrocyte and Erythropoesis Erythropoesis is the formation of Red Blood Cells Enrythrocytes are mature Red Blood Cell
Relationship between reticulocytes and red blood cells a Red Blood Cell precursor ejects it's nucleus and becomes a reticulocyte
Role of a neutrophil first to respond to bacterial invasion by carrying on phagocytosis and releasing enzymes
Role of a monocyte migrate into infected tissues and clean up cellular debris following an infection
Role of an eosinophil release enzymes that combat inflammation in allergic reactions. -a high eosinophil count often indicates an allergic condition or a parasitic infection
Role of a basophil intensify the inflammatory reaction and are involved in allergic reactions
Role of B, T, and natural killer cells B cells- develop into plasma cells and produce antibodies that help destroy bacteria T cells- attack viruses, fungi, transplanted cells, cancer cells, and some bacteria Natural killer cells- attack infectious microbes and tumor cells
What is hemostasis? a sequence of responses that stops bleeding when blood vessels are injured
3 methods of reduction of blood loss vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and blood clotting
What is a hemorrhage? the loss of a large amount of blood from the vessels
How does vascular spasm aid in hemostasis? it reduces blood loss for several minutes to several hours in which the other hemostatic mechanisms can begin to operate
How does platelet plug formation aid in hemostasis? platelets' characteristics change drastically and they quickly come together to form a platelet plug that helps fill the gap in the injured blood vessel wall
How does clotting aid in hemostasis? When blood is withdrawn from the body, it thickens and forms a gel, the gel then forms a clot to stop the flow of blood
The difference between a thrombus and an embolus thrombus is the blood clot embolus is a blood clot, bubble of air, fat from broken bones, or piece of debris transported by the bloodstream
What is a pulmonary embolism and why is one dangerous? when an embolus becomes lodged in the lungs, and it may result in death
What makes one blood group different from another? the presence or absence of various isoantigens
How is type A blood different from type B? RBC's that only have antigen A are Type A RBC's that only have antigen B are Type B
How is type AB blood different from Types A or B? If you have both A and B antigens rather than just one
What does an anti-A antibody do? reacts with antigen A
What does an anti-B antibody do? reacts with antigen B
Who has an anti-A antibody? Who does not? has=Type B not=Type A, AB, and O
Who had an anti-B antibody? Who does not? has=Type A not=Type B, AB, and O
What happens in an incompatible blood transfusion? antibodies in the recipient's plasma bind to the antigens on the donated RBC's and cause hemolysis and release hemoglobin into the plasma
What is the difference between Rh+ and Rh- blood? If you have Rh antigen-->Rh+ no Rh antigen-->Rh-
What is anemia and what are the symptoms? condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is reduced symptoms: fatigue, intolerant of cold, pale
What is the cause of iron-deficiency anemia? caused by inadequate absorption of iron, excessive loss of iron, or insufficient intake of iron
What is the cause of pernicious anemia? caused by insufficient hemopoiesis resulting from an inability of the stomach to produce intrinsic factor
What is the case of hemorrhagic anemia? caused by an excessive loss of RBC's through bleeding resulting from large wounds stomach ulcers, or heavy menstruation
What is the cause of hemolytic anemia? caused by RBC plasma membranes rupture prematurely, inherited defects or from outside agents such as parasites, toxins, or antibodies from incompatible transfused blood
What is the cause of thalassemia (anemia)? abnormality in one or more of the four polypeptide chains of the hemoglobin molecule, occurs in populations from countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea.
What is the cause of aplastic anemia? results from destruction of the red bone marrow caused by toxins, gamma radiation and certain medications that inhibit enzymes needed for hemopoiesis
What are the causes and symptoms of sickle cell anemia? RBC's contain an abnormal kind of hemoglobin, sickle cells rupture easily, prolonged oxygen reduction may eventually cause extensive tissue damage
What are the causes and symptoms of hemophilia? inherited deficiency of clotting in which bleeding may occur spontaneously or after only minor trauma symptoms: intramuscular hemorrhaging, nosebleeds, blood in the urine, and hemorrhages in joints that produce pain and tissue damage
What are the causes and symptoms of leukemia? accumulation of either mature or immature leukocytes because they don't die at the end of their normal life span
Reticulocyte counting the volume of reticulocytes in a sample of blood -measures rate of erythropoesis
Hematocrit Counting the % of a blood sample that is composed of RBC's -diagnoses anemia
Differential WBC count Count various forms of WBC to assess for infections and manufacture of WBC's.
Complete Blood Count Measure volume of all blood components, measures blood components that are out of range
-emia blood condition
erythr(o)- red
gluc(o) sugar, glucose
glyc(o) sugar, sweet
hem(o), hemat(o) blood, hemorrhage
-rrhagia hemorrhage, excessive discharge
phleb(o) vein
thromb(o) blood clot
Created by: 541603334