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What two sinuses are present at birth? 1.Maxilla. 2.Ethmoid.
When do you percuss the face? If evaluating for hypocalcemia.
Caput Succedanum Subcutaneous edema after birth that crosses the suture lines. **CONE HEAD
Cephalhematoma DOESN'T cross the suture lines. Subperiosteal collection of blood after birth.
Plagiocephaly flattened or asymmetrical shape to the skull in infants
Craniosynostosis premature closure of one or more cranial sutures before brain growth has been completed
Hydrocephalus swelling of the head MINUS the face
Encephelocele protrusion of nervous tissue through a skull defect.
Microcephaly Head circumfrence: 2 std deviations below mean
Features of fetal alcohol syndrom 1.retardation. 2.wide spread eyes. 3.mild ptosis. 4.short nose. 5.thin upper lip.
Hurler Syndrome Enlarged skull, low forhead, short neck. **muccopolysaccharide storage disease
Features of down syndrome 1.epicanthal folds. 2.depressed nasal bridge. 3.mongoloid slant. 4.macroglossia.
Hippocratic facies 1.sunken facial features 2.dry skin **seen in later stages of terminal illness
Cushings disease ADRENAL TUMORS, high glucocorticoids. 1.Moon Face. 2.Eythema. 3.Thin skin
What structures allow bone growth in the skull? Suture and fontanels permit skull expansion and bone growth. **skull may be deformed for short period after birth.
Classic migraine symptoms? 1.unilateral. 2.throbbing. 3.Nausea. 4.Menses **Common migraines present the same except GENERALIZED
Cluster headaches 1.Unilateral. 2.searing pain. 3.nasal discharge. 4.lacrimation.
Hypertensive headache 1.Bilateral. 2.occipital. 3.throbbing.
Muscular tension headache 1.Band-like. 2.Constricting. 3.Stress. 4.Anger.
Temporal Arteritis Headache 1.Temporal area. 2.throbbing. 3.OLDER ADULTS
What is the largest endocrine gland in the body? Thyroid gland. **If enlarged, vascular Bruits may exist.
Graves disease (Hyperthyroidism) AUTOIMMUNE (antibodies attack TSH receptors). 1.Exopthalmos. 2.Goiter. 3.tachycardia. 4.Wgt loss. 5.sensitivity to heat.
What may be secondary to severe prolonged hypothyroidism? Myxedema. 1.periorbital edema. 2.cognitive impairment. 3.puffy yellow skin. 4.Glycosaminoglycans.
Hashimoto disease (Hypoparathyroidism) AUTOIMMUNE (antibodies against thryoid gland). 1.Lethargy. 2.sensitive to cold. 3.wgt gain. 4.puffy eyes. **Congenital: floppy jaundice baby
Is it common to hear bruits near the thyroid? Yes if they are younger than 5. **also the gland may not be palpable.
How can the thyroid gland change with pregnancy? It can enlarge due to an increased demand for T3 & T4.
Agings effect on the thyroid decreases production and becomes fibrotic.
What does tracheal tugging suggest? Aortic aneurysm.
Branchial cleft cyst CONGENITAL. due to incomplete development. found on anteromedial border of SCM.
Nuchal rigidity Associated with meningeal irritation
When is the lymph system fully developed? 9-12 yrs/o
Commonly enlarged lymph nodes in children less than 2? 1.postauricular. 2.occipital
Function of the semicircular canals : respond to changes in direction of movement and send signals to the cerebellum for the maintenance of balance
Why are children more prone to ear infections? B/c their Eustachian tubes are wider, shorter, more horizontal.
Presbycusis gradual hearing loss, normal after age 65. **High frequency sounds are lost first.
Vertigo 1.unsteadiness, 2.loss of balance, 3.sycope.
Tophi Gout
Acute Otitis Media middle ear inflammation and effusion. **Look for a red bulging TM with limited or absent movement.
Otitis Media with effusion inflammation of middle ear due to collection of serous, mucoid, or purulent fluid. **TM will be yellow, bulging or retracted, cracking sounds heard on yawning or chewing.
Otitis Externa (Swimmer's ear) Bacterial or fungal infection of the auditory canal. **seen from trauma or moist environments. Pain worsens with chewing or movement.
Cholesteatoma cystlike tumor in the eardrum or middle ear. **If untreated can errode the temporal bone causing permanent hearing loss and meningitis.
Otosclerosis Hereditary. more common in women 15-45 y/o. **Hearing loss via hardening of the ossicles.
Labyrinthitis : inflammation of the labyrinthine canal due to a complications of a upper respiratory viral or bacterial infection
What age would you expect to see mastoiditis? what other disorders sometimes come with it? Less than 2 y/o. Meningitis can be a complicaiton.
Ménière diease Hearing loss caused by a change in fluid (endolymph) volume within the portion of the inner ear known as the labyrinth
What could cause nasal polyps? 1.recurrent sinusitis. 2.Asthma. 3.allergic rhinitis
Permanent teeth appear at what age? 6-15 y/o. **deciduous teeth appear around 6-24 months.
Long term side effects of the upper lip/ palate? 1.hearing loss. 2.chronic otitis media. 3.speech dificulties. 4.feeding problems. 5.improper tooth development.
When is the gingival tissue less elastic and more vulnerable? Older age
Xerostomia DRY MOUTH (decreased salivation) **Older Adults.
Exudative pharyngitis (Tonsilitis)inflmmation/infection of the tonsils.
Peritonsillar abscess causes: 1.Dysphagia. 2.drooling. 3.sore throat. 4.fever. 5.deviated uvula.
Torus Palatines NORMAL. bony protuberance in the midline of the hard palate.
Oral Cancer Ulcerative lesion that doesnt heal. **Can be painless and then painful, increase risk with EtOH and tobacco.
Oral Cancer: Benign Keratosis Need biopsy to ensure benign
Oral Cancer: Lichen planus BENIGN, white, intersecting lines.
Oral Cancer: Leukoplakia premalignant, chronic irritation.
Niacin or Vit B12 deficiency smooth red tongue.
Created by: WeeG
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