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AR Chap 12

Digestive System

achalasia decreased mobility of the lower esophagus and constriction of the lower esophageal sphincter
diverticulitis inflamed diverticula
hiatal hernia type of hearnia is the result of an upward protrusion of the stomach through the diaphragm due to an enlarged cardiac sphincter; diaphragmatic hernia
hyperemesis excessive vomiting
papillae rough elevations covering the tongue's upper surface
volvulus rotation or twisting of loops of the bowel
oroplasty plastic surgery of the mouth
navel umbilical hernia is a protrustion of the intesting through a weakness in the abdominal wall around this area
ileus obstruction of the intestine
diverticulosis non-inflamed diverticula
bolus mass formed during the process of chewing
cholelithiasis medical term for gallstones
gingivitis bleeding gums are a sign of
diarrhea frequent passage of loose watery stools
diverticulum outpouching through the muscular layer of the intestine, often associated with the sigmoid colon
peritoneum specific, serous membrane that cover the entire abdominal wall of the body and is reflected over the contained viscera
glycogenesis coversion of glucose to glycogen
colostomy surgical creation of a new opening between the colon and abdominal wall
laparoscopy exam through the abdominal wall
ileostomy creation of a new opening between the ileum and the abdominal wall
colectomy removal of all or part of the colon
hemorrhoids varicosities of the lower rectum
borborygmi gurgling, tinkling noises heard with the stethoscope
eructation air passed from the stomach through the mouth
stool guaiac fecal test for occult blood
cheiloplasty repair of a defect of the lip
emaciation excessive leanness caused by disease or lack of nutrition
dyspepsia a vague feeling of the epigastric discomfort after eating
achlorhydia an abnormal condition characterized by the absence of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice
aphagia condition characterized by the loss of the ability to swallow
ascites an abnormal accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity
saliva secretion containing water, enzymes, and mucus
amylase component of saliva, aids in the digestion of carbohydrates
rugae folds in the mucous membrane lining of the stomach
chyme liquid-like mixture that results from the digestive activities in the stomach
enamel hardest substance in the body, covers the visible part of the tooth
cementum harden connective tissue, covers the dentin of the tooth neck and root
lipase enzyme, aids in the digestions of fats
peristalsis wavelike motion that moves food through the digestive system
ileocecal sphincter pervents back flow of waste from the large intestine to the small intestine
nutritionist medical professional that tells people what to eat; studies and applies the principles and science of nutrition
absorption passage of substances across and into tissues
bile bitter, yellow-green secretion of the liver
crown part of the tooth that is visible above the gum line
deciduous teeth first set or primary teeth; baby teeth
defecation act of expelling feces from the rectum through the anus
deglutition swallowing
dietitian allied health professional trained to plan nutrition programs for the sick as well as healthy people.
digestion process of altering the chemical and physical composition of food so that it can be used by body cells
endocrine gland the pancreas manufactures insulin - which passes directly into the blood capillaries instead of being transported by way of ducts
exocrine gland pancreas manufactures the digestive juices which aid in the absorption of nutrients
gastroenterologist medical doctor who specializes in the study of the diseases and disorders affecting the gatrointestinal tract
gavage procedure in which liquid or semiliquid food is introduced into the stomach through a tube
gingivae gum tissue (singular: gingiva)
glucagon a hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas that stimulate the liver to convert glycogen into glucose when the blood surgar level is dangerously low
glucose simple sugar found in certain foods, especially fruits, and major source of energy occurring in the human and animal body fluids
glycogen complex sugar (starch)that is the major carbohydrate stored in animal cells
glycogenesis conversion of simple sugar into a complex for of sugar for storage in the liver
glycogenolysis breakdown of glycogen into glucose by the liver, releasing it back into the circulating blood in response to very low blood sugar level
hepatocyte liver cell
ileum distal portion of the small intestine extending frome the jejunum to the cecum
mastication chewing, tearin, or grinding food with the teeth while it becomes mixed with saliva
palate structure that forms the roof of the mouth
pancreas elongated organ approximately 6 to 9 inches long, located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen that secretes various substances such as digestive enzymes, insulin, and glucagon
pharynx throat
rectum portion of the large intestine, about 12 cm long
salivary glands one of the three pairs of glands secreting into the mouth, thus aiding the digestive process
sigmoid colon portion of the colon that extends from the end of the descending colon in the pelvis to the juncture of the rectum
sphincter circular band of muscle fibers that constrictss a passage or closes a natural opening in the body
stomach major organ of digestion located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen and divided into a body and pylorus
uvula small, cone-shaped process suspended in the mouth
achlorhydria abnormal condition characterized by the absence of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juices
anorexia lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
constipation difficulty in passing stools, or an incomplete or infrequent passage of hard stools
dypepsia vague feeling of epigastric discomfort after eating; uncomfortable feeling of fullness, heartburn, bloating, and nausea
emesis material expelled from the stomach during vomiting; vomitus
eructation act of bringing up air from the stomach through the mouth; belching
flatus/flatulence air or gas in the intestine that is passed through the rectum
gastroesophageal reflux backflow of content of the stomach into the esophagus that is often the result of incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter
icterus yellow discoloration of skin, mucous membranes and sclera of eyes - due to greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood; jaundice
nausea unpleasent sensation often leading to the urge to vomit
pruritus ani comon chronic condition of itching of the skin around the anus
streatorrha greater than normal amounts of fat in the feces
anal fistula abnormal passageway in the skin surface near the anus usually connecting with the rectum; may occur as the result of a draining abscess
celiac disease nutrient malabsorption due to damaged small bowel mucosa; occuring because of the ingestion of gluten
cirrhosis disease of the liver that is chronic and dgenerative, causing injury to hepatocytes
colorectal cancer presence of a malignant neoplasm in the large intestine; stool examination for occult blood is used for diagnosis
Crohn's disease digestive tract inflammation of a chronic nature causing fever, cramping, diarrhea, weight loss, and anorexia; also known as regional enteritis
dental caries tooth decay caused by acid-forming microorganisms
dysentery painful intestinal inflammation typically caused by ingesting water of food containing bacteria, protozoa, parasites, or chemical irritants; abdominal pain, bloody stools and intestinal cramping. often a result of unsanitary conditions
gallstones (cholelithiasis) pigmented or hardened cholesterol stones formed as a result of bile crystallization
hepatitis acute or chronic inflammation of the liver due to a viral or bacterial infection, drugs, alcohol, toxins, or parasites. most common is viral (A, B, and C)
hernia irregular protrusion of tissue, organ, or a portion of an organ through an abnormal break in the surrounding cavity's muscular wall
intussusception typically occurs in infants and young children; causing obstruction; severe abdominal pain, vomiting, and "currant jelly stool"
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) increased motility of the small or large intestinal wall, resulting in abdominal pain, flatulence, nausea, anorexia, and trapping of gas throughout the intestines; spastic colon
oral leukoplakia precancerous lesion occurring anywhere in the mouth
peptic ulcers (gastric, duodenal, perforated) break in the continuity of the mucous membrane lining of the gasrointestinal tract as a result of hyperacidity or the bacterium H. pylori; acute or chronic, singular or clustered
polyps, colorectal small growths projecting from the mucous membrane of the colon or rectum
thrush fungal infection in the mouth and throat producing sore, creamy white, slightly raised curdlike patches on the tongue and other oral mucosal surfaces; caused by Candida albicans
ulcerative colitis chronic inflamammatory condition resulting ina break in the continuity of the mucous membrane lining of the colon in the form of ulcers; large watery diarrheal stools containing mucus, pus or blood
abdominocentesis (paracentesis) involves insertion of a needle or trochar into the abdominal cavity to remove excess fluid, with the person in a sitting position
cholecystectomy surgical removal of the gallbladder
cholecystography (oral) visualization of the gallbladder through X-ray following the oral ingestion of pills containing a radiopaque iodinated dye
colonoscopy direct visualization of the lining of the large intestine using a fiberoptic colonoscope
colostomy surgical creation of a new opening on the abdominal wall through which feces will be expelled
gastric lavage irrigation, or washing out, of the stomach with sterile water or a saline solution
herniorrhaphy surgical repair of a hernia by closing the defect using sutures, mesh, or wire
small bowel follow-through oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows through the GI system. X-ray films are obtained at timed intervals to observe the progression of the barium through the small intestine
Created by: maxphia32



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