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Cianci- Greenstein

The Crimean War/ Reforms in the Ottoman Empire

Primary cause of the Crimean War: Russia's desire to expand it's influence over the Ottoman Empire
March 28, 1854 France and Britain declare war on Russia in allegiance with the Ottomans (Austria and Prussia remained neutral)
September of 1855 after a long siege, the Russian fortress of Sevastopol was taken by the French and British, leading to both sides desiring an end of the war
Treaty of Paris (March 1856) Russians must give up land at the mouth of the Danube River, recognize the neutrality of the Black Sea, and renounce its vow to protect orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire
Hatt-i Sharif of Gulhane attempted to recognize the empire's military and administration in a European manner
Tanzimat (1839-1876) Reorganization era of the Ottoman Empire
Hatt-i Humayun spelled out the rights of non-Muslims more explicitly, giving them equal obligations of military service to Muslims and giving them equal opportunity for state employment and admission to state schools
Breakdown of the Millet System an effort by the Ottomans to have everyone recognized as Ottoman citizens rather than as members of specific religious communities
Ulema those who wanted to maintain the rule of the original Islamic law, Sharia
1877 First meeting of the Ottoman Empire's parliament in an effort to modernize the empire and become more like the Europeans, while leaving the Sultan's power mostly intact
1908 military officials carried out a revolution against the authority, but no the person of the sultan
Young Turks group of reformist officers that held power up until WW1 and eventually led to the empire's defeat and collapse
Main underlying theme of the Ottoman reforms from 1839 to 1914? Secularizing the government and reducing/removing the influence of the Muslim authorities on government affairs
Created by: Cianci