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Tcc Crossland ch 2

cell The smallest living unit in the human body
Schleiden and Schwann In 1838 Schleiden formulated the cell theory for plants. In 1839 Schwann formulate the cell theory for animals.
Cell Theory *All organisms are composed of cells *All cells com from other cells *all chemicals reactions of living organisms take place within cells *Cells contain the hereditary factors
Plasma membrane *surrounds the outside of the cytoplasum *composed of phospholipids membrane proteins and other compunds
Cytoplasm general term for all the material inside the cell
Cytosol Fluid component of cytoplasm; may contain inclusions of insoluble materials Functions - Distruibutes materials by diffusion; stores glycogen, pigments and other materials
Organelles structures withing the cytoplasm that have a particular function and very distinct structure
Ribosomes RNA + Proteins; fixes ribosomes bound to rough endoplasmic reticlum, free ribosomes scattered in cytoplasm function - Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Surface area and volume
Nucleus is an organelle surrounded by a double membrane with numerous openings functions - hereditary information, produce mRNA molecules that serve as templates for proteins synthesis, synthesis or ribosomal suuniths
Nuclear envelope and pores nuclear envelope - double membrane nuclear pores - numerous openings on the nucleus
Mitochondrion Double membrane, with inner membrane folds (criste) enclosing metabolic enzymes function - produces 95 percent of ATP required by the cell
Endoplasmic reticulum Network of membranous channels extending though out the cytoplasm Function - synthesis of secretory products; intracellular storage and transport
Rough and Smooth ER Rough - has ribosomes bound to membranes fuction modification and packagin of newly synthesized proteins Smooth - lacks ribosomes functions - lipid, steroids, and carbohydrates synthesis; calcium ion storage
Golgi apparatus/Complex Stacks of flattened membranes (cisternae) containing chambers Functions - Storage, alteration, and packaging of secretory products and lysosomal enzymes
lysosome Vesicles containing digestive enzymes functions - intracellular removal of damaged organelles or pathogens
peroxisome Vesicles containing degradative enzymes functions - catabloism of fats and other organic compounded; neutralization of toxic compounds generated in the process
cytoskeletion The internal protein framework that gives the cytoplasm strength and flexibility Function - Strength and support; moement of celluar structures and materials
cilia and flagella nine groupos of long microtubule doublets form a cylinder around a central pair propels fluids or solids across cell surface or with flagella propels sperm cells though fluid
cytoplasmic streaming
dynein and kinesin are tiny cellular motors that move substances along elements of the cytoskeleton. they also move cytoskeletal elements past each other
tight junctions
Communicating (Gap)junctions
Anchoring junctions
Cell Cycle includes both the growth phases and cell division.
Parent cell makes 2 daughter cells
Daughter cell each cell receives a portion of the cytoplasm and organelles of the parents cell as well as a complete set of chromosomes.
Interphase period during which the cell is not actively dividing includes G1,S, and G2
S,G1 and G2 *G1 growth and metabolism *S DNA replication production of histones *G2 structures required for division begin to form
Prophase *Chromatin is condensed to form visible chromosomes *Each chromosome has two sister chromatids * Spindle begins to form * Nuclear envelope disintegrates
Metaphase *Chromosomes attached to the spindle by Kinetochores *Kinetochores align chromosomes along the plane of cell division
Anaphase *Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite polls *each is now a daughter chromosomes *Enzymes in the Kinetochores provide the propulsion
Telophase *A complete set of chromosomes is grouped around each pole *Nuclear envelope forms around each set (from elements of the ER) *Mitotic spindle disintergrates *Chromosomes uncoil
Mitosis and Meisosis
Sister Chromatids
Nucleus nucleoplasm containing nucleotides, enzymes, nucleoproteins, and chromatin; surrounded by double membrane 0nuclear envelop) containing nuclear pores function- control of metabolism; storage and processing of genetic information;contol of protein synthesi
Nuclear envelope envelope surrounding the nucleus
Mitotic spindle
Cleavage Furrow
What is a cell?
What is the basic structure of an animal cell
4 major tenets of cell theory
structure of the plasma membrane * surrounds the outside of the cytoplasm *composed of phospholipids, membrane proteins and other compounds.
what are the different components of the plasma membrane
what are the primary functions of the plasma membrane *regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell *mediates response of cell to hormones and other signal
how big are cells
why is there a functional limit to cell size
what are the different cellular organelles
what are the structures of the cellular organelles
what are the functions of the cellular organelles
how do cells move
what are the different methods of locomotion
what are the different type of intercellular junctions tight junctions, communicating junctions achoring junctions
how do cells produce new cells
what is a cell cycle
what are the different phases of the cell cycle
what are the major events that occur in each phase of the cell cycle
and Chromosomes
functions of the Golgi Apparatus functions- synthesis and packaging of ploysaccharides destined for vacuoles and the cell wall,processing and routing of proteins from the ER
Created by: sarah.teacher36



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