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CS! Neuro

Cerebral lesions produce what type of effects? Contralateral defects
Frontal lobe Primary motor cortex. Main controls: 1.personality. 2.intellect. 3.executive fnc. 4.impulse control. **Broca's Aphasia: Good comprehension but difficulty speaking.
Parietal lobe Sensory data. Lesion: Skin sensation impairment of contralateral side of body.
Occipital lobe Primary vision cortex
Temporal Lobe Primary auditory cortex. Functions: 1.hearing. 2.language. 3.taste. 4.smell. 5.balance. 6.emotions. **Wernicke's Aphasia: Poor comprehension, no difficulty speaking
Limbic system 1.hypothalamus. 2.Thalamus. **5 F's** 1.feeding. 2.fighting. 3.feeling. 4.fleeing. 5.fucking.
Control of Cerebellum 1.muscle tone. 2.Equilibrium. 3.posture. 4.fine movements. **lesions:ataxia, imbalance, abnormal rapid-alternating-movements
Lateral spinothalmic tract 1.Pain. 2.Temperature.
Anterior spinothalmic tract 1.superficial touch. 2.deep pressure.
Signs and Symptoms of Neurologic Disease 1.headache. 2.syncope. 3.dizziness. 4.ataxia. 5.dysphagia. 6.gait disturbance. 7.pain. 8.seizures. 9.weakness. 10.numbness
5 levels of conciousness 1.confusion. 2.lethargy. 3.delirium (confusion w/ disordered perceptions & anxiety). 4.Stupor (arousable for short periods). 5.Coma (glasgow scale out of 15. lower = more severe the impairment in conciousness).
What two CN are involved in the Corneal Reflex? Sensory Limb: CN V1. Motor Limb: CNVII
Upper and Lower motor Neuron lesions on CNVII Upper: STROKE (Normal function to upper face, contralateral weakness to lower face). Lower: Bell's Palsy (Total ipsilateral side of face paralyzed).
Weber-Rinne Test tests CNVIII. Weber: Pt should hear both sides equally. Rinne: AC>BC (2:1) ratio is normal
Lesion on CN X Uvula deviates away from the side of the lesion. **Tested when pt says "AAHHH"
CN XI muscle strength grading Trapezius and sternocleidomastoid. 0:Absent. 2:Weak (movement with gravity eliminated). 3.Fair (movement against gravity). 5.Normal (movement against gravity w/ full resistance).
Lesion on CN XII The tongue will deviate towards the ipsilateral side when protruded.
Cerebellar motor coordination test Romberg: Pt's eyes first open then closed (be ready to catch patient. ...Hell Romberg ****ed her
Carpel tunnel testing Median nerve entrapment/palsy. 1.Tinnel's test. 2.Phalen's test.
Peripheral Neuropathy PNS disorder resulting in motor and sensory loss of one or more nerves (hands and feet).
Stereognosis the ability to recognize familiar objects in your hand with your eyes closed.
Areas of decreasing sensitivity in a Two-point discrimination test 1.Tongue. 2.Fingertips. 3.Toes. 4.Palms. 5.Chest/forearms. 6.Back. 7.Upper arms/ thighs
Graphesthesia Drawing a letter or number on the palm of the pt's hand and they should be able identify what it is.
Grading reflexes 0:No response. 1+ Sluggish/ Diminished (lower motor disorder). 2+ Active. 3+ Slightly hyper. 4+ Hyperactive/transient clonus (upper motor neuron defect)
Conditions causing lower motor neuron defects 1.Anterior horn cell pathology. 2.Myopathies. 3.Hypothyroidism.
Conditions causing upper motor neuron defects 1.Pyramidal tract disease. 2.Hyperthyroidism. 3.Pre-Eclampsia. 4.Metabolic disorders.
Signs of Lower motor neuron defects 1.Diminished reflexes. 2.Muscle atrophy. 3.decreased muscle tone. 4.sensation may follow dermatome. 5.Fasciculation present. 6.Damage only affects IPSILATERAL side.
Signs of Upper motor neuron defects 1.hyperreflexia. 2.Increased muscle tone. muscle atrophy. 4.sensation affects entire limb. fasciculation. **Damage above brainstem:contralateral side. Below: ipsilateral side.
Superficial reflexes 1.Corneal. 2.Upper abdomen. 3.lower abdomen. 4.Cremasteric. 5.Plantar/toe signs
Toe signs 1.Babinski (J on lateral foot). 2.Chaddock (lateral foot). 3.Schaeffer (squeeze achilles). 4.Oppenheim (Knuckles on shin, move down). 5.Gordon (squeeze calf). 6.Bing (pin pricks on dorsilateral foot). 7.Gonda/stransky (pull 4th toe out/down and rele
Ankle Clonus Can be seen with toe sign tests. rhythmic oscillating movements with rapid dorsiflexion of the foot. Associated with an upper motor neuron lesion
Gait problems: Stroke Lower Limb: 1. stiff/extended. 2.Plantar flexed, foot drag. Upper limb: 1.Flexed/Adducted. 2.Doesn't swing.
Gait problems: Parkinson's Posture is stooped and body is rigid. Hesitation on starting and stoping short steps.
Gait problems: Cerebellar ataxia 1.Wide stance. 2.Lurching from side to side. 3.swaying of the trunk.
Gait problems: Tabes Foot slapping
Gait problems: Sensory ataxia 1.wide stance. 2.foot brought down heel then toe. 3. + Romberg.
Meningeal Irritation: Brudzinski sign 1.Flex neck forward. + sign if involuntary felxion of hips/kness with neck felxion.
Meningeal Irritation: Kernig's Sign 1.Flex legs at knee and hip. 2.straighten the legs. + sign if pain and resistance to straightening.
Meningeal Irritation: Nuchal rigidity 1.Pt supine and flex neck. + sign if pain/resistance to neck motion. **Indicates meningitis and intracranial hemorrhage.
Created by: WeeG
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