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Anatomy Exam

Anatomy flash cards for Exam

QuestionAnswer
the study of structure, their forms and organization anatomy
-subject is erect -the face is forward -upper limbs at the side -palms forward anatomical position
study of body functions, what they do and how they do it physiology
pleural cavities (right and left)-contain the lungs; pericardial cavity; the mediastinum thoracic cavity
located on the anterior/ventral(belly) side of the body; contains the organs called viscera; two subdivisions: thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity ventral cavity
covers organs visceral membrane
located near the the posterior/dorsal(back) surface of the body; composed of cranial cavity and vertebral/spinal canal dorsal cavity
lungs pleura
depressing it so the control mechanism is shut off negative feedback
enhancing it so the reaction is continued at an even more vigorous rate positive feedback
lines cavities parietal membrane
heart pericardium
maintenance of a stable internal environment despite an ever changing outside environment homeostasis
negative feedback- blood sugar levels, body temperature, blood pressure; positive feedback- control of blood clotting, enhancement of labor contractions, baby suckling for milk examples of homeostasis
refers to a section that divides the body into anterior(front) and posterior(back) portions coronal section/frontal section
refers to a lengthwise cut that divides the body into right and left sides sagittal section
refers to a cut that divides the body into upper and lower portions transverse section
atom -> molecule -> macromolecule -> organelle -> cell -> tissue -> organ -> organ system -> organism order of complexity
protect tissues, regulate body temp., support sensory receptors; skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands integumentary system
provide frame, protect soft tissues, provide attachments for muscles, produce blood cells, store inorganic salts; bones, ligaments, cartilage skeletal system
cause movements, maintain posture, produce body heat; muscles muscular system
detect changes, receive and interpret sensory information, stimulate muscles and glands; brain spinal cord, nerves, sense organs nervous system
control metabolic activities of body structures; glands that secrete hormones endocrine system
move blood through blood vessels, transport substances throughout body; heart, arteries, capillaries, veins cardiovascular system
return tissue fluid to the blood, carry certain absorbed food molecules, defend the body against infection; lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen lymphatic system
receive, break down and absorb food, eliminate unabsorbed material; mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small & large intestines digestive system
intake and output of air, exchange of gases between air and blood; nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs respiratory system
remove wastes from blood, maintain water and electrolyte balance, store and transport urine; kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra urinary system
produce and maintain sperm cells, transfer sperm cells into female reproductive tract, produce and maintain egg cells, receive sperm cells, support development of an embryo and function in birth process reproductive system
a thin sheet of fibers that underlies the epithelium basement membrane
a short band of tough, flexible, fibrous connective tissue that connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a joint ligament
a flexible but inelastic cord of strong fibrous collagen tissue attaching a muscle to a bone tendon
form protective barriers(outer layers of the skin and inner lining of the mouth), secretion, absorption, and excretion epithelial tissue
bind, support, protect, fill spaces, store fat, produce blood cells connective tissue
movement muscle tissue
transmit impulses for coordination, regulation, integration and sensory reception nervous tissue
single layer simple
tissue with cells that are in layers stratified
tissue with cells that appear to be in layers, but are not pseudostratified
single layer of flattened cells; common site for diffusion and filtration; forms the walls of the capillaries and air sacs of lungs simple squamous
single layer of cube-shaped cells; secretes glandular products; lines the kidney tubules and ducts of salivary glands simple cuboidal
single layer of elongated cells; secretes digestive fluids and absorbs nutrients; forms the lining of the stomach and intestines simple columnar
all cells touch the basement membrane, but not all reach the surface; commonly possesses cilia that move mucous; forms the linings of respiratory tracts pseudostratified columnar
consists of many layers with a relatively flat outer layer; relatively thick layer that provides protection; forms the lining of the oral cavity, anal canal, and vagina stratified squamous
consists of 2-3 layers of cube-shaped cells; layering provides more protection; forms the lining of the lumen stratified cuboidal
consists of several layers of elongated cells; secretes digestive fluids and absorbs; forms the lining of the pharynx and male urethra stratified columnar
the cells may change shape changes between cube-shape to possibly flattened due to increased tension; forms a barrier that prevents contents from diffusing back; forms the linings of the bladder and ureters transitional
composed of mostly fibroblasts and bonds the skin to underlying organs loose connective tissue
found beneath the skin and around joints that function in cushioning joints, insulation, and stores energy adipose tissue
composed of thin, branched fibers of collagen and forms the framework of the lymph nodes and liver reticular connective tissue
very strong tissue that lacks a good blood supply and is located in tendons dense connective tissue (regular)
contains yellow fibers and imparts an elastic quality to the spinal column elastic connective tissue
has a good blood supply and functions as a point of attachment for muscles, support and protection bone
highly resistant to wear that is found on the ends of articulating bones hyaline cartilage
serves as a shock absorbing material between bones and is found in intervertebral disks fibrocartilage
provides strength and flexibility and located in the external ear and larynx elastic cartilage
formed inside the bone and functions include transportation of substances in the body blood
thicker, interwoven, and more randomly organized tissue found in the dermis dense connective tissue (irregular)
Created by: lizzyliz714