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HA Ch. 4

Integumentary System

integumentary system skin and appendages (accessory structures)
accessory structures hair nails sweat glands sebaceous/oil glands
the skin is... the largest organ of the body
how much of the total body weight is the skin 7% (1.5 mm - 4 mm in thickness)
integument even covers eyes and ears
all 4 what are found in the integument? tissue types
what covers the surface? epithelium
what provides underlying stability? connective tissue
what is found on the walls of the blood cells smooth muscles
what controls the blood vessels and provides sensations? nervous tissue
functions of the integument protection, body temp, excretion, nutrition (synthesis), sensation, immune defense
layers of the skin dermis and epidermis
ear drums typpanic membranes
superficial layer of the epidermis thick epithelium
keratinized stratified squamous epithelia has four distinct cell types keratinocytes, melanocytes, merkel cells, langerhans cells
keratinocytes most abundant cell type and produce keratin for protection
keratin tough fibrous protein
keratinocytes arise from... deepest layer of epidermis from cells undergoing almost continuous mitosis
keratinocytes are.... dead, flat cells completely full of keratine by the time they reach the surface
areas of friction cause... cell production and keratine formation to accelerate
keratinocytes also produce... antibiotics and enzymes that detoxify the harmful chemicals on the skin
melanocytes produce melanin
melanin dark skin pigment
thick skin five visible layers
thin skin four visible layers
merkel cells intimately associated with sensory nerve ending fibers
merkel cells may serve as receptors for touch
langerhans cells macrophage-like dendritic cells (immune cells)
layers of the epidermis dermis, basal lamina, stratum germinativum, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum, surface
stratum basale/germinativum single row of cells consisting of basal cells
basal cells stem cell keratinocytes
stratum germinativum contain merkel cells and melanocytes
what occurs in the stratum germinativum layer? continual mitosis
merkel cells vs langerhans cells detecting sensation vs phagocytic cells
stratum spinosum (spiny layer)keratinocytes containting thick bundles of pre-keratin
stratum spinosum contains langerhans cells
stratum spinosum's keratinocytes look spiky due to production of interconnecting proteins called tonofibrils
tonofibrils increase... stability in the spiny layer
stratum granulosum 3-5 layers of flattened keratinocytes
granulosum's cytoplasm of keratinocytes contain keratohyaline (help from keratin)and lamellated granules(water proofing glycolipid)
stratum lucidum clear layer that doesn't stain well
stratum lucidum is a... transition zone that consists of flattened densely packed cells filled with keratin
where is lucidum found only in thick skin (palms and soles of feet)
stratum corneum horny layer
corneum consists mainly of dead keratinocytes and water proofing glycolipids in the extracellular space
how many layers thick is the corneum? 15-30
keratinized epithelium containing a large amount of keratine
relatively dry covering that results... is relatively reistant to microorganism growth
keratinization occurs everywhere on the surfaceof the skin exceptthe anterior surface of the eyes
dermis deep layer of connective tissue underlying the epidermis
the dermis (strong flexible connective tissue divide into two layers) papillary and reticular layers
papillary layer loose areolar connective tissue proper with capillaries
reticular layer fibers in an interwoven meshwork of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds blood vessels, hair follicles, nerves, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands
cells in the dermis are fibroblasts, macrophages, mast ccells, white blood cells
fiber types in the dermis collagen, elastic, reticular
dermis is richly supplied with nerve fibers and blood vessels
function of the dermis nourishment and temp. regulation
papillary layer accounts for... superficial, 20% of the dermis
dermal papillae finger-like pegs which project into the epidermis and lie atop dermal ridges
papillary layer folds... in the stratum germinativum and extend into the dermis to form epidermal ridges
finger prints, palm prints, and footprints result from epidermal ridges and papillae are very pronounced
fingerprints and footprints increase the surface area of the skin and increase friction/enhance gripping ability
patterns of epidermal ridges and dermal papillae are genetically determined
reticular layer accounts for 80% of the deeper dermis layer
reticular is composed of dense irregular connective tissue
reticular due to... thick collagen fibers that extend into the papillary and subcutaneous layer to bind everything together
hypodermis subcutaneos layer
reticular layer provides... strength and resilience to skin
what is found in the reticular layer blood vessels, muscles, glands, hair follicles,and nerves
blood supply of the integument cutaneous plexus and papillary plexus
cutaneous plexus network of blood vessels at the border of the reticular layer and subcutaneous layer
papillary plexus highly-branched network of blood vessels just deep to the epidermis
plexi play a role in thermoregulation and overall blood flow
nerve fibers regulate blood flow and glands
nerve supply provides sensory perception through tactile discs and free dendrites
tactile discs formed from union of merkel cells and sensory nerve endings
free dendrite sensitive to pain and temperature
other receptors of the skin tactile corpuscles (light touch) and root hair plexus (light touch) ruffini corpuscles (stretch) and lamellated corpuscles (deep pressure/vibrations)
skin color is determined by thickness of corneum, amount of pigments in epidermis, and blood supply in dermis
melanin dark pigment (black yellow-brown or brown) produces and stored by melanocytes
malanosomes visciles with melanin and transfered from melanocytes to keratinocytes
vesicles are destroyed by lysosomes
light skin occurs if melanosomes are transferred in the stratum basale(germ) and spinosum (superficial layers lose pigment)
dark skin occurs if larger melanosomes are transferred in the stratum granulosum as well
melanin helps prevent skin damage by surrounding nuclei of cells to absorb uv radiation
melanin production is triggered by UV radiation and leads to tanning
carotene yellow-orange pigment found in orange veggies
carotene may be trapped in the epidermisand can convert to Vitamin A
vitamin A is required for epithelial maintenance and the synthesis of visual pigmens in the eye
increased blood flow... causes blushing
decreased blood flow... causes skin paleness
long-term decreased blood flow... causes cyanosis resultingin hypoxia
cyanosis bluish coloration
hypoxia low tissue O2 concentrations
hypodermis is not.. part of the integumentary system but shares skin fuctions
which tissues occur in the hypodermis areolar and adipose (predominates)
hypodermis stores fats
hypodermis anchors kin to underlying structures loosely enough so that skin can slide relatively free
hypodermis acts as insulator
great location for... injection bec there aren't any organs (hypodermic needle)
function of hair sense light touch on the skin via the roothair plexus
other functions of hair protection,trapping of particles,arrector pili muscles provide movement of hairs(goosebumps)
what predominates hair hard keratin
the hair root portion of hair attached to hair follicle
hair shaft portion exposed to the surface
two major parts of hair hair root and shaft
hair consists of three concentric layers of keratinized cells
keratinized cell layers medulla, cortex, cuticle
medulla central core containing large cells and air spaces, absent in fine hairs
cortex several layers of flattened cells
cuticle single outer layer of dead cells, overlapping like shingles, most heavily keratinized for strength
hair follicles organs that form the hairs
hair follicles form from the epidermal surface into the dermis, forming a hair bulb in the deep end
internal root sheath layer of cells surrounding hair root and deeper parts of the shaft
external root sheath located superficial to the internal root sheath and resembles the layer of the epidermis,spans entire length of follicle
glassy membrane thickened basal lamina of epidermis
arrector pili muscle associated w/ each hair follicle
hair papilla are of unconnected tissue at the base of the hair follicle
hair bulb area of epithelial that grows the hair
types of hair lanugo, vellus, intermediate, terminal
lanugo first hairs produced before birth
vellus fine, colorless (peachfuzz)
intermediate thin, colored hairs commonly found on the appendages and groin
terminal coarse, darkly pigmented hairs found on head and face
hair color is determined by melanin production in the melanocytes found in hair papilla
density of melanin determines hair color
red hair results from biochemically distinct form of melanin
hair color is affected by age and hormones
gray hair results from pigment production decreasing
white hair lack of pigmentation and presence of air bubbloes in medulla
sebaceous glands oil glands
oil glands occur all over the body except the palms of hands and the soles of feet
oil glands are associated with hair follicles
oily production sebum
sebum functions as lubrication and prevention of bacterial growth
oil glands secretion holocrine
sebaceous follicles large sebaceous glands that do not attach to a hair follicle
sweat glands sudoriferous gloands
sweat glands occur everywhere except nipples and external genitalia
myoepithelial cells small cells that squeeze the secretion or sweat out of a sweat gland
myo muslce
eccrine (merocrine) sweat glands most numerous type especially on the palms and soles
sweat glands are small, coiled and tubular
true sweat 99% water, 1% electrolytes
functions of sweat thermoregulation, excretion, protection
apocrine sweat glands mostly confined to the axillary, anal and genital areas
apocrine glands are larger than eccrine glands
apocrine glands produce a special kind of sweat consisting of fatty substancesand proteins, via merocrine secretion
what may act on the secretion bacteria, which changes biochemical makeup, which makes a bad odor
mammary glands milk production, anatomicaolly related to apocrine sweat glands
ceruminous glands modified sweat glands in the external auditory canal
cerumen ear wax that forms from secretions of ceruminous glandsand sebaceous glands
nails scale-like modification of epidermis
nails corresponds to superficial keratinizedlayers of skin
nail matrix actively growing region
nail body actual nail
nail bed epithelium under the nail body
nail root fold in the epidermis near the bone of the digit
nail grooves lateral borders of the nail body
nail folds are upward folds in the epidermis lateral to the nail grooves
eponychium cuticle, an extension of the proximal nail fold that coversthe nail root
lunula pale area near the eponychium
hyponychium fold of epidermis deep to the distal nail body
Created by: handrzej



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