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Digestive System

notes, word parts, & pathalogical conditions

Digestive System known as gastrointestinal tract, digestive tract, and alimentary canal; 30 feet long begining w/ mouth and ending w/ anus
Functions of Digestive System organs of digestive system work together to prepare foods for absorption and responsible for elimination of solid waste from the body
Digestion the process of altering the chemical and physical composition of food
Gastroenterologist physician who specializes in the study of diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract
Upper gastrointestinal tract oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and stomach
Lower gastrointestinal tract large and small intestines
Oral cavity first part of the digestive tract; recieves food for ingestion
Oral cavity's parts lips, cheeks, hard palate, soft palate, and tongue
Tongue Solid mass of very strong, flexible, skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane
Mastication chewing
Salivary Glands (3 parts) parotids, submandibulars, and sublinguals- secrete most of saliva
Enzymes in saliva amylase and lipase
Amylase enzyme that breaks down starch into smaller carbohydrate molecules
Lipase enzyme that aids in the digestion of fats
Teeth responsible for the process of chewing
Pharynx (throat) adjoins the oral cavity and is a passageway that serves both the respiratory and digestive systems
Esophagus recieves food from the pharynx and propels it to the stomach; a muscular canal extending from the pharynx to the stomach
Stomach the major organ of digestion located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen and divided into the body and pylorus
Three major divisions of the stomach fundus, body, and pylorus
Chyme liquidlike mixture of partially digested food and digestive secretions; released in small amounts through the pyloric sphincter into the small intestine
Small intestine known as bowel
Ileocecal sphincter a muscular ring that prevents the backflow of wastes from the large intestine into the small intestine
Large Intestine begins with the ileocecal junction and extends to the anus
Colon the longest part of the large intestine; divided into 4 sections
Rectum the last 7-8 inches of the large intestine
Anus the opening in which feces are eliminated from the body (defecation)
Liver Longest gland of the body and one of the most complex; located immediatly under the diaphragm, slightly to the right
Hepatocytes liver cells that produce bile
Bile yellowish-green secretion of the liver
Function of bile emulsifies (breaks apart) fats, preparing them for further digestion and absorption in the small intestine
Function of the Liver carbohydrate metabolism, fat metabolism, and detoxification
Gallbladder pear-shaped sac, located on the undersurface of the liver; stores and concentrates bile produced by the liver
Pancreas elongated organ of approximately 6-9 inches; located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen
Insulin secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas
Cholelithiasis abnormal presence of gallstones in the gallbladder
Duodenum first part of the small intestine
Enamel hard, white substance that covers the dentin of the crowns of a tooth; hardest substance in the body
Enzyme a protein produced by living cells that catalyzes chemical reactions in organic matter
Peristalsis The coordinated, rhythmic, serial contraction of smooth muscle that forces food through the digestive tract
Amyl/o starch
Append/o appendix
Appendic/o appendix
Bil/i bile
Bucco/o cheek
-centesis surgical puncture
Cirrh/o yellow
Colon/o colon
Esophag/o esophagus
Gastr/o stomach
Gluc/o sugar; sweet
Glyc/o sugar; sweet
Lip/o fat
Mandibul/o mandible
Odont/o teeth
Or/o mouth
Pancreat/o pancreas
Pharyng/o pharynx
-plasty surgical repair
Rect/o rectum
-rrhaphy suturing
-spasm twitching; involuntary contraction
Anorexia Lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
Aphagia A condition characterized by the loss of the ability to swallow as a result of organic or psychologic causes
Dysphagia Difficulty swallowing
Emesis Vomitus
Gastroesophageal Reflux A backflow of contents of the stomach into the esophagus (heart burn/ GERD)
Cirrhosis A disease of the liver that is chronic and degenerative causing injury to the hepatocytes; caused by malnutrition, achoholism, infection, or poisons (liver cells will slowly regenerate)
Crohn's disease Digestive tract inflammation of a chronic nature causing fever, cramping diarrhea, weight loss, and anorexia
Diverticular disease An expression used to characterize both diverticulosis and diverticulitis (common in ppl over 45)
Gallstones (cholelithiasis) Pigmented or hardened cholesterol stones formed as a result of bile crystallization
Hemorrhoids A permanently distended vein, varicosity, in the distal rectum or anus
Pancreatitis An acute or chronic destructive inflammatory condition of the pancreas
Colostomy The surgical creation of a new opening on the abdominal wall through which the feces will be expelled
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) Alternative treatment for gallstones by using ultrasound to align the computerized lithotripter and source of shock waves with the stones- to crush the stones
Gastrointestinal endoscopy The direct visualization of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, using a lighted, fiberoptic endoscope
Liver biopsy A piece of liver tissue id obtained for examination by inserting a specially designed needle into the liver through the abdominal wall
a.c. before meals (ante cibum)
BE barium enema
GBS gallbladder series
GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease
GI gastrointestinal
GTT glucose tolerance test
HBV hepatitis B virus
HCI hydrochloric acid
IBS irritable bowel syndrome
IVC intravenous cholangiography
LES lower esophageal sphincter
LFTs liver function tests
MRI magnetic resibabce imaging
N&V nausea and vomiting
NG nasogastric
p.c. after meals (post cibum)
PP,pp postprandial
PTC percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram
SBS small bowel series
TPN total parenteral nutrition
Created by: LeeAnn8



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