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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Flashcards

QuestionAnswer
Compare/Contrast how the endocrine and exocrine glands work. Endocrine - releases hormones into interstitial fluid and then into the blood stream. Exocrine - secret their products into ducts that carry secretions into a body cavity.
Role of target cells and receptor sites. Target cells are only affected by a specific hormone traveling throughout blood. In receptors, hormones influence their target cells by chemically binding to specific receptors.
Identify locations of receptor sites for lipid soluble and water soluble hormones. Lipid soluble receptor sites are inside, while water soluble receptor sites are outside.
3 ways hormone secretions are controlled and examples. 1. Signals from the nervous system. Ex- impulses to the adrenal medullae. 2. Chemical changes in blood. Ex - blood Ca+2 level regulates secretion of parathyroid hormone. 3. Chemical changes in other hormones. Ex- hormone from anterior pituitary stimula
Human Growth Hormone (hGh) 1. promotes synthesis 2. secrete small protein hormones called insulin like growth factors (IGF's).
Thyroid - Stimulating Hormone (TSH) 1. stimulates the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
Follicle - Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone (FSH) 1. ovaries are targets 2.each month FSH initiates the developement of sereral ovarian follicles and LH triggers ovulation. 3. Then LH stimulates formation of the corpos letum in the ovary and the secretion of progesterone by the corpos luteum.
Prolactin (PRL) 1. initiates and maintains mil production by the mammary glands.
Oxytocin 1. after delivery of a baby, 2 target tissues: uterus and breasts 2. during delivery, enhances contract of smooth muscle tissue 3. after, stimulates mil ejection from mammary glands 4.milk production and ejection constitute lactation
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) 1.allow kidneys to retain more water, thus decreasing urine volume 2. also decreases water through sweating 3. other name: vasopressin - increase blood pressure
Thyroid Hormones (T3 and T4) Thyroxine (T4) - contains 4 atoms of iodine Triiodothyronine (T3) - 3 atoms of iodine 1. T4 circulates in blood and enters cells throughout body 2. then most converted to T3 by removal of iodine atom 3. Parafollicular cells produce calcitonin
Glucagon 1. secreted by islet cells called alpha cells 2. increase blood glucose level when it falls below normal 3. provides neurons with glucose for ATP production
Insulin 1. secreted by islet cells called beta cells 2. helps glucose more into cells, which lowers blood glucose level when its too high.
Cortisol 1. most abundant glucocorticoid 2. following actions: protein breakdown glucose formation breakdown of triglycer. anti - inflammatory eff depression of immune res
Epinephrine 1. hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that produces actions 2. similar to those of sympathetic stimulation
Nonepinephrine 1. hormone secreted by adrenal meddulla that produces actions similar to sympathetic stimulation
Estrogen 1. produces by the ovaries 2. govern development of oocytes, maintenance of female reproductive structures, and appearance of secondary sex characteristics
Progesterone 1. produced by ovaries 2. helps prepare the endometrium of the uterus for implantation of a fertilized ovum 3. mammary glands for milk secretion
Cushings Disease Causes - hypersecretion of cortisol by the adrenal cortex Symptoms - sindly arms and legs, "moon face", "buffalo hump" on back
Glucagon 1. secreted by islet cells called alpha cells 2. increase blood glucose level when it falls below normal 3. provides neurons with glucose for ATP production
Insulin 1. secreted by islet cells called beta cells 2. helps glucose more into cells, which lowers blood glucose level when its too high.
Cortisol 1. most abundant glucocorticoid 2. following actions: protein breakdown glucose formation breakdown of triglycer. anti - inflammatory eff depression of immune res
Epinephrine 1. hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that produces actions 2. similar to those of sympathetic stimulation
Nonepinephrine 1. hormone secreted by adrenal meddulla that produces actions similar to sympathetic stimulation
Estrogen 1. produces by the ovaries 2. govern development of oocytes, maintenance of female reproductive structures, and appearance of secondary sex characteristics
Progesterone 1. produced by ovaries 2. helps prepare the endometrium of the uterus for implantation of a fertilized ovum 3. mammary glands for milk secretion
Cushings Disease
Addisons Disease Causes - hypersecretion of glucocorticoids and aldosterone Symptoms - mental lethargy, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, weight loss, hypoglycemia, and muscular weakness
Type 1 Diabetes Causes - low insulin level, immune system destroys the pancreatic beta cells Symptoms - excessive urine production, excessive thirst and excessive eating
Type 2 Diabetes Causes - high glucose levels in the blood Symptoms - excessive urine production, thirst, and eating
Hyperinsulinism Cause - when a diabetic injects too much insulin Symptoms - hypoglycemia, decreased blood glucose level
lact(o) milk
acromegaly enlarged and distorted extremities of the face
acidosis accumulation of acids in the blood
anorexia loss of appetite
cachexia state of malnutrition, wasting
diaphoresis excessive sweating
emaciation extremely thin, wasting
gangrene death of tissue secondary to low oxygen levels
hypophysectomy removal of pituitary gland
neuropathy disease of nerves, common with diabetes
Created by: Shayla Jochum