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A and P chapter-3

QuestionAnswer
Adipose Fat tissue
Anaplasia Growth of abnormal cells, as in tumor or neoplasm
Apoptosis Programmed cell death by means of several biochemical processes built into each cell
Areolar Type of connective tissue consisting of fibers and a variety of cells embedded in a loose matrix of soft, sticky gel
Axon Nerve cell process that transmits impulses away from the cell body
Centriole One pair of tiny cylinders in the centrosome of a cell; believed to be involved with spindle fibers from mitosis
Centromere A beadlike structure that attaches one chromatid to another during the early stages of mitosis
Chondrocyte Cartilage cell
Chromatid A chromosome strand
Chromatin Deep sustaining substance in the nucleus of cells; divides into chromosomes during mitosis
Cleavage Furrow Appears at the end of anaphase and begins to divide the cell into two daughter cells
Collagen Principle organic constituent of connective tissue
Columnar Shape in which cells are higher than they are wide
Complementary Base Pairing Bonding purines and pyrimidines in DNA
Connective Most abundant and widely distributed tissue in the body and has numerous functions
Crenation Abnormal notching in an erythrocyte cause by shrinkage after suspension in a hypertonic solution
Cuboidal Cell shape resembling a cube
DNA Genetic material of the cell that carries the blueprint of the body
Endocrine Secreting into the blood or urine rather than into a duct
Epithelial Covers the body and its parts; lines various parts of the body
Exocrine Secreting into a duct; opposite of endocrine
Genome Entire set of chromosomes in a cell
Gland Secreting structure
Glia Supporting cells of nervous tissue
Goblet Cell Specialized cells found in simple columnar epithelium that produce mucus
Hematopoietic Specialized connective tissue that is responsible for the formation of blood cells and lymphatic system cells
Hyperplasia Growth of an abnormally large number of cells at a local site
Hypertonic A solution containing a higher level of salt than is found in a living red blood cell
Hypotonic A solution containing a lower level of salt than is found in a living red blood cell
Interphase The phase immediately before the visible stages of cell division when the DNA of each chromosome replicates itself
Interstitial Small specialized cells in the testes that secrete the male sex hormone
Isotonic Type of contraction that maintains uniform tension or pressure
Lyse Disintegration of a cell
Matrix The intracellular substance of a tissue
Messenger RNA A duplicate copy of the gene sequence on the DNA that passes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
Mitosis Indirect cell division involving complex changes in the nucleus
Anaphase Stage of mitosis; duplicate chromosomes move to poles of diving cells
Metaphase Second stage of mitosis, during which the nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear
Prophase First stage of mitosis during which chromosomes become visible
Telophase Last stage of mitosis in which the cell divides
Neuron Nerve cell, including its processes
Nucleoplasm A special type of cytoplasm found in the nucleus
Nuclear Envelope The boundary of a cells nucleus, made up of a double layer of cellular membrane
Organelle Cell organ
Cilia Hairlike projections of cells
Endoplasmic Reticulum Network tubles and vesicles in cytoplasm
Flagellum Single projection extending from the cell surface
Golgi Apparatus Small sacs stacked on one another near the nucleus that makes carbohydrate compounds, combines them with protein molecules, and packages the product in a globule
Lysosome Membranous organelles containing various enzymes that can dissolve most cellular compounds
Microvilli The brushlike border made up of epithelial cells found on each villus in the small intestine and other areas of the body
Mitochondria Threadlike structures
Nucleolus Critical to protein formation because it "programs" the formation of ribosomes in the nucleus
Nucleus Spherical structure within a cell
Plasma Membrane Membrane that separates the contents of a cell from the tissue fluid
Ribosome Organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that synthesizes proteins
Vesicle A clinical term referring to blisters, fluid-filled skin lesions
Osteon Structural unit of compact bone tissue made up of concentric layers of hard bone matrix and bone cells
Phospholipid Phosphate-containing fat molecule
RNA A nucleic acid found in the cytoplasm that is crucial to protein synthesis
Spindle Fiber A network of tubles formed in the cytoplasm between the centrioles as they are moving away from each other
Squamous Scalelike
Transfer RNA Type of RNA that temporarily binds to specific amino acids and transfers them to specific sequences on a mRNA sequence
Transcription Action that occurs when the double-stranded DNA molecule unwinds and forms the mRNA
Translation The synthesis of a protein by ribosomes
Dialysis Separation of smaller particles from larger particles through semipermeable membrane
Diffusion Spreading of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration
Filtration Movement of water and solutes through a membrane by a higher hydrostatic pressure on one side
Osmosis Movement of fluid through semipermeable membrane
Phagocytosis Ingestion and digestion of articles by a cell
Pinocytosis The active transport mechanism used to transfer fluids or dissolved substances into cells
Created by: Akile6