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Sports Nutrition-CM

Clinical Medicine II

Working lg muscle groupds for an extended period of time aerobic exercise: O2 used for ATP
Higher intesnsity, short bursts of intense activity anaerobic exercise: requires ATP at high rate
Three types of fuel used during aerobic exercise muscle glycogen, stored TG’s, Protein (muscles)
Method of energy in athletes with inadequate caloric intake protein breakdown
Number one limiting factor in aerobic performance glycogen depletion
What causes glycogen depletion failure to consume enough calories, can’t maintain wt during training
What fuels anaerobic exercise ATP, Phosophocreatine sxs, lactic acid system
Is glucose used faster in ox phos or anaerobic glycolosis? 18X faster in Anaerobic
What factors contribute to muscle fatigue and exhaustion lactic acid build up, lack of glucose, decondonditing
Maximus amount of ox an individual can take up at max intensity VO2 max
Does your VO2 change? no the %VO2 max of OBL (onset of Blood Lactate)
What fuel is used a lot during a brisk walk? fat
Oxidative fibers high in myoglobin with slow contraction speed, high TG storage, Good energy supply Type 1: slow twitch
Oxidative muscle fibers fast contraction speed, glycolytic, mod. Energy Type IIA, Fast Twitch
Glycolytic white fibers, low oxidative capacity, fast contraction speed Type II B
Best diet for high performance athletes High CHO 60-70%, 700g,
Example of Carbo loading slowly decrease exercise for previous 6 days, increase CHO intake up to the day before
What does excess carbs convert into if not needed to fat and stored, fat never returns to glucose
What type of athletes need ^protein, 2-3x RDA endurance and strength-resistance training
In order to maintain adequate protein nutrition, what do we need with it? Calorie and CHO intake, prevents endogenous protein as an energy source
What can replace protein supplements? skim milk and lean meats
What can too much protin and AA’s do to the body Increase kidney workload, (^ammonia leves, dehydration), AA imbalances, high [osmolar]: cramping/diarrhea
How should a diet be arranged for a resistance training/endurance athlete CHO throughout day to prevent protein breakdown, protein throughout the day:excess->used as energy, stored as fat, CHO prior to resistance, protein after
Can muscle mass be gained through protein intake alone? no need resistance training
Fxns of Antioxidants decreases oxidative stress, vit. A (beta-carotene) C, E
Large doses (10x RDA) can lead to toxicity B6 (pyridoxine)
These are important in energy transfer and ATP production B vitamins (remember thiamine depletion w/ alcohol)
Why is iron often thought needed to be replenished it helps with myoglobin synthesis but can cause toxicity in males
If you are thirsty, are you dehydrated? yes, but you can be dehydrated and not thirsty
Recommended fluid replacement for exercise before: 16-20oz 2hr, 16oz prior, 2cups for every lb lost
Acute dehydration >1% loss in body wt, lg ECF including Na+ and H20
% body wt loss in acute dehydration that is life-threatening 6% loss of body wt
Classifications Chronic dehydration >1% of body wt, loss of both ECF and ICF, can see losses up to 10% body wt
Signs and sxs of Dehydration ^electrolyte concentration, muscle cramps, postural hypotension, tachycardia, decreased urine output
Cause of heat cramps drop in serum Na+ and Cl-, replacing only water
Tonic contractions of voluntary muscles including abdomen heat cramps
Tx/prevention of heat cramps .1% oral saline (sports drinks)
Causes of heat exhaustion Na+ depletion, impaired acclimation, plain H2O replacement, dehydration
Signs and sxs of Heat exhaustion profuse sweating, HA, N/V, Dizziness, Visual disturbances, extreme fatigue, weak/rapid pulse
Tx heat exhaustion stop exercise, remove clothing, move to cool place, cool sponge, oral fluid replacement, correct electrolyte imbalances
Severe signs of heat exhaustion hypotension, hyperventilation, tachy, dec. urine, DECREASED sweating
Tx severe heat exhaustion Emergency, 1/5nl saline IV plus 5%dex
Sxs of heat stroke HA, hot/cold flashes, weakness, lack of sweat, hot/dry skin, deafness, hallucinations, nervousness, unsteady walking, core temp 107
3rd leading COD in athletes Heat stroke
Tx Heat stroke IV fluid replenishment, electrolyte replenishment, cool them,
Actions of anabolic steroids ^rate of gain of lean body mass, ^muscle size, ^strength, ^Androgenic (masculinity)
SE’s of Anabolic steroids MS: dec. strength and elastic compliance of tissue, premature cessation to linear growth, (closure of epiphysis), CV, Hepato dysf, Dec. immune, Severe acne
Male and Female gender SE’s of anabolic steroids M: infertility, oligospermia, dec. testi size, gynecomastic, prostate cancer, F: dec. LH, FSH, Estro, proges, virilization, male pattern alopecia
What are psych effects of steroids mood swings, irritability, violence, depression, other substance abuse
What is DHEA/S? Clinical significance? precursor to testosterone: no clinical significance
What is Androstenedione “Andro?” Clinical significance? intermediate bw DHEA and testosterone, banned, bcuz does increase testosterone: train harder build muscle
What is stacking? combining steroids with other precursors and hormones
Other supplements available Growth hormones, B2Agonists
What are examples ergogenic aids Outside supplements to ^performance: creatine, caffeine, blood doping mechanisims
How much does creatine actually help? ^ phosphocreatine in muscles, may help with <30s boost limited data doesn’t hurt: high amounts: renal effects
Created by: becker15
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