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PRAXIS PLT cards

QuestionAnswer
The degree to which genetic or hereditary influences (nature) and experiential and environmental influences (nurture) determine the kind of person that you were, are and could become can be referred to as ________________. Nature vs. Nurture
What concept refers to concern about whether a particular developmental phenomenon represents a smooth progression throughout the life span (continuity) or a series of abrupt shifts (discontinuity). Continuity vs. Discontinuity
Concerns about whether there is just one path of development or several is referred to as ____________. Universal vs. Context-Specific Development
The idea that development is inextricably intertwined with the context in which the development occurs is referred to as __________. Context-specific
What are the four interactive forces that explain and affect development? Biological Forces, Psychological Forces, Sociocultural Forces, and Life Cycle Forces
What are biological forces of the biopsychosocial framework? Biological forces are genetic and health-related factors
What are psychological forces of the biopsychosocial framework? Psychological forces are perceptions as well as cognitive, emotional, and personality factors.
What are sociocultural forces of the biopsychosocial framework? Sociocultural forces are interpersonal, society, relationship, cultural, and ethnic factors.
What are life-cycle forces of the biopsychosocial framework? Life-cycle forces are differences in how the same event affects people of different ages.
What is the Scientific Method? A tool to understand or answer questions about something that was observed.
List the four steps of the scientific method. 1) Identify a process or problem to be studied 2) Collect research information (data) 3)Analyze the data 4)Draw a conclusion
The research design in which one simply observes and records is referred to as __________. Descriptive research
The research design in which one describes the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics is referred to as ______________. Correlation research
The regulated procedure in which one or more factors are manipulated while all other factors are held constant is referred to as ___________. Experiment
What type or research design provides an index called the correlation coefficient (“r”) which indicates the strength of the relationship between variables Correlation studies
What type of research design observes or tests one group of individuals over a long period, is expensive and requires a large time commitment? Longitudinal studies
Which research design observes or tests groups of different ages? Cross-sectional studies
A research design which is a combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal designs is referred to as ___________. Sequential studies
A group of people who are born at a similar point in history and share similar experiences is referred to as a _____________. Cohort
Describe the cross-sectional approach to research. Individuals of different ages are compared simultaneously.
Describe the longitudinal approach to research. The same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more.
In experimental studies, the factor that is being manipulated is the ____________. Independent variable
In experimental studies, the behavior that is being studied for possible changes is referred to as the _____________________. Dependent variable
In an experimental study, what is a control group? The control group is a comparison group. It is treated like the experimental group except for the manipulated factor (independent variable. It serves as a baseline against which the effects of the manipulated condition can be compared.
What are four important issues addressed in APA's guidelines for conducting ethical research? 1) Informed consent 2) Confidentiality 3) Debriefing 4) Deception
What is meta-analysis? An analysis of many studies to estimate relations between variables. This allows scientists to verify findings across many studies.
What is the purpose of a theory? The purpose of a theory is to explain, predict and control.
The theory that development is largely determined by how well people resolve conflicts they face at different ages. Psychodynamic developmental theory
Who was a major contributor to applying modern psychodynamic theory to lifespan development? Erik Erikson
List Freud's Psychosexual stages in order from birth onward. Oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency stage, genital stage
What are the 8 stages of psychosocial development from birth onward? - basic trust vs. mistrust - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt - Initiative vs. Guilt - Industry vs. Inferiority - Identity vs. Identity Confusion - Intimacy vs. Isolation - Generativity vs. Stagnation - Integrity vs. Despair
Explain behaviorism. We can study scientifically only what can be directly observed and measured
What is reinforcement? A consequence that increases the future likelihood of the behavior that it follows.
What is punishment? A consequence that decreases the future likelihood of the behavior it follows.
Describe the learning theory. It concentrates on how learning influences a person’s behavior; emphasizes the role of experience and observation learning.
Describe the social learning theory. Imitation or Observational Learning occurs when people learn by simply watching those around them.
What is Albert Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory? We learn through a system of consequences (rewards/punishment) but also we learn through social interactions with others
Explain Jean Piaget's cognitive development theory. Children naturally try to make sense of their world. Childrens' understanding of the world becomes increasingly more complex and accurate. This is the opposite idea of tabula-rasa or Watson's blank slate theory.
Cognitive development occurs by a process of: ADAPTATION through ASSIMILATION and ACCOMMODATION
Adaption is the result of interplay between ____________ and ___________. assimilation and accommodation
Who developed the Theory of Mind? Wellman Gelman, 1992
Who developed the Theory of Multiple Intelligences? Gardner
According to Gardner, what are the 8 intelligences? - Verbal - Math/logic - Kinesthetic - Spacial - Musical - Naturalistic - Interpersonal - Intrapersonal
According to the Information Processing Theory, what is mental hardware? psychological structures such as memory capacity
According to the Information Processing Theory, what is mental software? cognitive abilities that process information and help us to interact with the world
Describe Vygotsky's theory. Vygotsky's theory emphasized the impact of sociocultural influence on child development and focused on how adults convey aspects of their culture to children. Viewed development as an apprenticeship.
Describe Humanistic Theory. Focuses on uniqueness/worth of humans as individuals.
Define Pheomenology. How individuals view their own world.
What components make up Maslow's hierarchy of needs Basic needs, meta-needs, self-actualization
According to Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Theory, what is a microsystem? People and objects in the immediate environment
According to Urie Bronfenbrenner's Theory, what is a microsystem? Influences of Microsystems on each other
According to Urie Bronfenbrenner's Theory,what is an exosystem? Social, environmental, and governmental forces
According to Urie Bronfenbrenner's Theory, what is a macrosystem? Subcultures and cultures in which the other three systems are imbedded
At what point to infants begin to respond to the word "no"? Between 5 and 7 months
In infants, most fears are triggered by ________. People
According to Freud, what are the characteristics of the oral stage in infant development? - The mouth is the child's pleasure center and the child will enjoy sucking, biting, swallowing, blowing and playing with lips. - Id is dominant - The child wants immediate gratification
According to Freud, at what point does a child transition from the oral stage to the anal stage? By the beginning of year two
Who studied the development of trust vs. mistrust in newborns? Erikson
Who studied the relationships between experience and behavior in small children? Skinner
Who developed the idea that reinforcement and/or punishment can shape behavior if implemented properly? Skinner
Who explained human functioning with a model of triadic reciprocality in which behavior, cognitive and other personal factors, and environmental events all operate as interacting determinants of each other? Bandura
Success in dealing with a variety of situations, even if ambiguous or highly stressful, is referred to as _____________. Self-efficacy
According to Piaget, the process of creating a good fit/match between one’s concept of reality (schemes) and real-life experiences encountered is called ___________. Adaptation
According to Piaget, responding to situations in terms of activities or knowledge already learned or present at birth ( sucking scheme – nipples and fingers) interpret experience so it fits existing scheme is called _____________. Assimilation
According to Piaget, changes required in information or behavior due to new understanding or information (block and egg) changing existing scheme to incorporate experience are called ___________. Accommodations
Explain the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development. Adaptation is equilibration between assimilation and accommodation
During the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development, reflexes develop when? During the first month
Organized patterns of behavior or thought formulated as a child interacts with environment are referred to as ______________. Schemes
Describe the constructivist theory. -Knowledge cannot be transmitted but must be constructed by mental activity of learner -Construct rules through adaptation rather than discover ready-made rules
The concept of a Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) was developed by ______________. Vygotsky
Who developed the idea that human development consists of a series of ongoing changes (adaptations through assimilations and accommodations) in interactions between person and context? Bronfenbrenner
Explain self-actualization. Not a state we can obtain but a process guiding development. Makes full use of talents, capacities, potentialities, etc.
Who developed the concept of multiple intelligences? GARDNER
Sense of self as separate from, but attends to and acts on, objects and others; emerges in first year. I-self
Starts to construct another aspect of self, reflective observer who treats the self as an object of knowledge and evaluation; emerges during second year. Me-self
According to Freud, between the ages of 3 and 6, children experience the _________ stage. Phallic
Describe the Phallic Stage. Impulses transfer to genitals; child finds pleasure in genital stimulation. Superego established – determines individual’s basic personality
What is a permissive parenting style? A parenting style in which the child is in control
What is an authoritative parenting style? A parenting style in which the parent is in control but listens to child and includes child in some decisions related to the child
What is an authoritarian parenting style? A parenting style in which the parent is the boss in all circumstances and whatever the parent says goes.
The difference between what a child can do with help and what a child can do without help is referred to as what? The Zone of Proximal Development
Which theorist said that children learn by doing? Piaget
How individuals view their own world is referred to as ____________. Pheomenology
The difference between how a person is and how they person thinks he or she should be is represented in the ___________. Discrepancy Model
A study strategy which involves mental or vocal repetition is referred to as ____________. Rehearsal
A study strategy which involves grouping ideas, objects, and/or words into clusters is called ____________. Organization
A study strategy which involves finding shared meaning or common referent for things to be remembered by is called ___________. Elaboration
A study strategy which involves the usage of devices to assist memory is called ____________. mnemonic
“Scanning” one’s memory to find information is referred to as ____________. systematic searching
Define metacognition. Knowledge about own learning (thinking about your own thinking and thought processes)
The transition between childhood and adulthood is referred to as ____________. Adolescence
The most prominent type of emotional disorder during adolescence is ___________. Depression
Define propositional thinking. Thinking about both sides of an issue
Well organized concepts of self, made up of values, beliefs, and goals to which individual is solidly committed. Identity
What are Carroll and Rests' four steps of moral behavior? Moral sensitivity, moral judgment, moral motivation, moral action
During representation sampling, _______________ are broad groups of people in which researchers may be interested. Populations
A subset of the population chosen to represent the population in representation sampling is referred to as a ____________. Sample
Define constructivism. Knowledge is constructed by the individual through his interactions with his environment.
A phenomenon in which something that was previously learned facilitates or hinders current learning; the influence of previously learned information on new situations or tasks. Transfer
What is a scaffolding structure? A temporary learning aid designed to help the student grow in independence as a learner; provides clear directions, keeps learner on task, delivers efficiency, etc.
List the components of Bloom's Taxonomy from the lowest level of comprehension to the highest. knowledge, understanding, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation
The discrepancy between a child's mental age [indicated by the static test] and the level he reaches in solving problems with assistance is referred to as ___________. The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
What is linguistic intelligence? Using words in learning
What is Logical-mathematical intelligence? Using numbers or logic in learning
What is Spatial intelligence? Using pictures in learning
What is bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence? Using movement or physical experience in learning
What is musical intelligence? Using music in learning
What is Interpersonal intelligence? Use of self reflection in learning
What is Intrapersonal intelligence? use of social experience in learning
What is Naturalist intelligence? Using experiences in the natural world in learning
Cooperative learning was the idea of which theorist? John Dewey
Which theorist said that culture dictates what we learn and how? Lev Vygotsky
Speech to control the behavior of others is referred to as ____________. Social speech
Three to seven year old children often talk to themselves to learn. This behavior is referred to as __________. Egocentric speech
What is inner speech? Soundless speech; thinking in your head
Who developed the concept of the hierarchy of needs? Abraham Maslow
The preferred way an individual processes information is referred to as _____________. Cognitive style
A personality dimension which influences attitudes, values, and social interaction. Style
What are four distinct learning styles? visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic
What are the four components of KOLB’s Theory of Learning styles? Concrete experiences, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, active experimentation
According to KOLB's Theory of Learning Styles, a concrete experience is what? Being involved in a new experience
According to KOLB's Theory of Learning Styles, a reflective observation is what? watching others or developing observations about their own experience
According to KOLB's Theory of Learning Styles, abstract conceptualization is what? Creating theories to explain observations
According to KOLB's Theory of Learning Styles, active experimentation is what? Using theories to solve problems and make decisions
With regards to the multiple intelligences, describe a student who has Verbal/Linguistic intelligence or is word smart. How would you motivate this student? He or she learns best by saying, hearing, and seeing words. Motivate the student with books, by talking with him/her, and/or letting him/her write
With regards to the multiple intelligences, describe a student who has Logical-Mathematical intelligence. How would you motivate this student? They are conceptual thinkers who explore relationships, patterns, and experimenting with things in an orderly and controlled manner.
With regards to the multiple intelligences, describe a student who has Visual/spatial intelligence or is picture smart. How would you motivate this student? He or she learns best with images, pictures, and color – motivate with videos, diagrams, maps, and charts
With regards to the multiple intelligences, describe a student who has Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence or is body smart. How would you motivate this student? He or she learns through touching and moving. Motivate the student with role play, dramatic improvisation, creative movement, physical activity.
With regards to the multiple intelligences, describe a student who has musical intelligence or is music smart.How would you motivate this student? He or she learns through rhythm and melody. Motivate the student with records, tapes, and musical instruments.
With regards to the multiple intelligences, how would you describe a student with interpersonal intelligence or is people smart. How would you motivate this student? Motive with peer-group opportunities and community activities
With regards to the multiple intelligences, how would you describe a student who is intrapersonal or self smart? How would you motivate this student? The student learns best by himself – motivate the student with private space and quiet introspection time.
With regards to the multiple intelligences, how would you describe a student who is a Naturalist or is "nature smart"? How would you motive the student? Motivate with opportunities to work outdoors, supply with books on the natural world – binoculars, telescopes, or microscopes.
Physical states or conditions that result in impairment of functioning (eg: loss of a leg). Disabilities
Disabilities that interfere with the individual’s ability to function in specific situations. Handicaps
A disorder in the ability to process information that can result in attention, perception, or memory deficits. Learning disability
A term used in psychiatric classification systems to describe individuals who show poor attention due to distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. ADHD; Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period. Characterized by both below-average intellectual ability and deficits in adaptive behavior. Functional Mental Retardation
What act states that no person shall, by any reason of his or her disability be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination in any services, programs, or activities of an entity covered by the law? Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Which act ensures all children and youth with disabilities in the United States access to a free, appropriate public education (FAPE)? Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
Individualized plans based on the student’s needs are called ______. IEPs
This means that the student is place in an environment that is not dangerous or overly controlling or intrusive; The most appropriate educational placement that is closest to the mainstream. Least Restrictive Environment
Term which expresses commitment to educate each child, to the maximum extent appropriate, in the school and classroom he or she would otherwise attend. It involves bringing the support services to the child (rather than moving the child to the services). Inclusion
The selective placement of special education students in one or more "regular" education classes. Mainstreaming
A set of procedures designed to ensure the fairness of educational decisions and the accountability of both professionals and parents in making these decisions. Due Process
Curriculum should be differentiated in what three areas? Content, Process, Product
An internal state that initiates, directs, and maintains behavior is referred to as _________. Motivation
An internal source of motivation such as curiosity or the desire to learn; motivation associated with activities that are their own reward. Intrinsic motivation
Motivation created by external events or rewards outside the learning situation itself. Extrinsic motivation
A sense that one is doomed to fail, based on past experiences. This sense can stifle motivation and prevent people from attempting new tasks. Learned helplessness
An individuals belief about or perception of personal competence in a given situation. Self-efficacy
A type of learning in which voluntary behaviors are strengthened or weakened depending upon their consequences or antecedents. Operant conditioning
Using consequences to strengthen behavior is called _________. Reinforcement
The strengthening of a behavior by the presentation of a desired stimulus or reward after the behavior. Some examples are food, physical contact, and social praise. Positive reinforcement
The strengthening of a behavior by the removal of an aversive stimulus. –For example, a child is allowed to come out of the corner when he or she is quiet. Negative Reinforcement
A behavior management method for developing an appropriate behavior in which the teacher rewards responses that are successively more similar to the desired response; teachers must break down the desired complex behavior into a number of small steps. Shaping Successive Approximations
Anticipating potential problems and creating procedures to help prevent these situations is called ___________. Prevention
The gradual disappearance of a learned response is called _______________. extinction
A schedule in which every correct response is reinforced. Continuous Reinforcement
Anything that weakens or suppresses behavior is called ____________. Punishment
A schedule in which correct responses are reinforced frequently, but not every time; This schedule is most effective in maintaining already acquired responses. Intermittent Reinforcement
With regards to factors which influence motivation, what is the behavioral approach? Students receive incentives such as grades, recognition, and rewards. Those students with extrinsic motivation may react more favorably to these motivators.
With regards to factors which influence motivation, what is the humanistic approach? Students’ deficiency needs must be met before their growth needs can be addressed. Motivation can be influenced by family, peers, ethnicity, and gender.
What is a primary reinforcer? Something that satisfies human needs for food, water, security, and warmth.
What is a secondary reinforcer? Something that acquires its value by being related to primary reinforcers or other secondary reinforcers.
What are the three types of secondary reinforcers? Social reinforcers, token reinforcers, and activity reinforcers
Changes in the classroom that involve movement or redirection are called _______________. Transitions
A process whereby the learner considers a variety of possibilities, then chooses from those possibilities using unbiased, rational thinking is called _____________. Critical thinking
A process whereby the learner creates something new or original is called ___________. Creative thinking
Any thinking that goes beyond recall of basic facts is referred to as ___________. Higher Order Thinking
Teaching that follows the cycle used in scientific inquiry involves what type of thinking? Inductive thinking
A form of inquiry with four basic components (presentation of a generalization, –discussion of core elements of the generalization, student exploration of the elements, student generation of relevant examples of the generalized concept) is called ______ Deductive Thinking
An open-ended problem-solving task. It is the process of creating something to fill a need. Invention
This refers to the use of theoretical frameworks to explain and analyze social patterns and large-scale social structures. Social reasoning
Which type of instructional strategy is a specific type of small group learning which has five essential elements:Positive interdependence, face-to-face interaction,individual accountability, structured activity and teamwork skills. Cooperative Learning
Teacher-centered instruction which includes lecture, presentation, and recitation is referred to as __________. Direct Instruction
This instructional strategy has a constructivist approach. Students begin learning with an activity designed to lead them to particular concepts or conclusions. Students acquire basic and advanced knowledge in random order. Discovery Learning
Instructional strategy in which the teacher simply leads an informal discussion involving the class as a whole. Whole-Group Discussion
This instructional strategy involves practice done without intervention by the teacher. This approach includes many activities done with a computer. Independent Study
Traditional elementary and secondary classrooms divide instruction into categories such as "reading," "math," and "social studies." This strategy is referred to as _____________. Interdisciplinary Instruction
Any of several forms of graphical organizers which allow learners to perceive relationships between concepts through diagramming keywords representing those concepts. Concept Mapping
Who developed the instructional strategy of concept mapping? Joseph Novak
A system in which students solve problems or answer questions by forming tentative answers (hypotheses), then collecting and analyzing data to provide evidence for or against their hypotheses is referred to as _____________. Inquiry Method
Having students apply "who, what, when, where, why, how" to all problems, or asking students to generate questions is using which instructional strategy? Questioning
The method of using educational games to teach a concept and/or review material is referred to as _______________. Play
Describe a "learning center". Learning centers, also referred to as “learning stations” or just plain “centers” are areas set-up around the room that are designed for a specific activity.
This describes the organization of students into groups from 2 to 5 to accomplish a task or project. Small Group Work
What is "revisiting"? Otherwise known as “Reviewing.” It should occur during and at the end of a unit and at the end of semester.The goal is to give students more than one opportunity to grasp skills previously taught and to integrate them into future learning experiences.
___________ is a metacognitive activity in which the learner pauses to think about, and organize information gathered from reading, discussions, or other activities. Reflection
____________is an individual or collaborative enterprise planned and designed to achieve an aim. It allows a student to experience a concept or topic more effectively than just reading or talking about the topic. Project Approach
Who developed the direct instruction model for effective teaching? Madaline Hunter
These organizers are introduced before the learning begins and are also presented at a higher level. They act as a bridge between the new concepts being taught and what the student already knows. David Ausubel’s “Advance Organizers”
The idea that everyone can learn given the right circumstance is referred to as _____________. Mastery Learning
Providing modeling of what you want students to replicate in a smaller group or as a whole class is referred to as ________________. Demonstration
Methods, devices, or even mental tricks for improving memory are called __________________. Mnemonics
Who developed the 4MAT Curriculum Development Model? Bernice McCarthy
What is unique about the 4MAT Curriculum Development Model? It uses all the learning styles and multiple intelligences
An investigative process of learning in which students are asked to pose questions, analyze data, develop conclusions or generalizations, classify, predict, and experiment. Inquiry Model
An inquiry process in which learners pose questions and seek explanations. Discover Learning
Learning based on a small group; approach to teaching in which students are held accountable for both individual and group achievement.Activities include pair-share, jigsaw, teams, games, and tournaments) Cooperative Learning
Allows an educator to arrange any number of learning components or tasks into a “map” or plan to be accomplished. Concept Models
A cooperative learning grouping in which students meet together for small group discussions among themselves. Discussion Models
___________ are used particularly in science classes where students test out their hypothesis. Laboratories
Students self-select a project that they would like to work on and all learning that occurs is centered around their project and ties in with it in some way. Project-Based Learning
A pretend setting or situation that parallels a real-world setting or situation and allows students to practice problem-solving skills. Simulations
A plan that outlines the steps to both implement the lesson and assess the capacity of the teacher’s instruction and the student’s learning is called __________________. Lesson Plan
____________________ are assessments that are administered and scored in exactly the same manner for all students. Typically mass produced and machine scored. Standardized tests
Tests which compare a person's score against the scores of a group of people who have already taken the same exam, called the "norming group" are called _______________. Norm-Referenced Tests
An assessment where an individual's performance is compared to a specific learning objective or performance standard and not to the performance of other students. Criterion-Reference Tests
Tests designed to measure the current level of learners’ performance, also designed to show the depth of one’s knowledge and mastery of subject area curricula. Achievement Tests
Test that measures capabilities that involve spatial reasoning, manual dexterity, clerical perception, or other capacities to learn certain behaviors.Scores do not rely specifically on knowledge gained but may be enhanced through like activities. Aptitude Tests
________ is a more formal assessment where the teacher is observing if a student has learned a specific task. Structured Observations
Notes that a teacher makes while they are observing students in various classroom situations. Anecdotal Notes
_______________ is what we already know or have experienced, directly or vicariously, that we bring to the act of learning. Prior knowledge
A collection of materials that demonstrate how each student is progressing across time in learning content, mastering operations, broadening and/or refining tastes and interests, and progressing in development toward more complex or mature stages. Portfolio
When students evaluate their learning based on who knows them best (themselves), it is referred to as _____________. Self-Evaluations
These assessments are ranked according to pre-established performance criteria or guidelines that are listed on rubrics and can be a standardized assessment if it is administered and scored in the same way for all. Performance Assessment
The degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure is referred to as ________________. Validity
_____________ refers to the consistency of test results. Reliability
The ____________ is the average test score. Mean
The ___________ is the point on a distribution at which there are equal numbers of scores above and below it. Median
The ______________ represents the most frequently occurring test score. Mode
The assessment of student performance by means of a rating system is called _____________. Analytical Scoring
The assessment of a student’s work in its entirely rather than judging specific parts is called ____________. Holistic Scoring
A list of components that performance on an assessment task should ideally include. Used to guide the scoring of students’ responses. Rubrics
A test score that indicates the percentage of people in the norm group getting a raw score less than or equal to a particular student’s raw score. Percentile Rank
The distribution of possible scores, divided into nine parts is called _____________. Stanines
Levels that describe whether a student has met a certain criteria deemed in the curriculum. Mastery Levels
__________ show how many items the student got right on the test or on each subtest. Raw scores
______________ represents a level of achievement that is considered average for a particular grade and month of school within that grade. Grade Equivalent Score
_________________ is an index of how scores are spread out around the mean, regardless of the shape of the distribution. Standard Deviation
A statistic estimating the amount of error likely to be present in a particular score on a test or other assessment instrument. Standard Error of Measurement
On-going assessment throughout the learning process – to discover where students are at in the learning process. Formative Evaluation
A process in which the teacher determines how well students have mastered new concepts and skills and met lesson objectives. Summative Evaluation
Forms of assessment that are norm-referenced and standardized but are designed to be administered to students who are showing signs of difficulty in specific subject areas. Diagnostic Evaluation
A federal law of the USA that prohibits discrimination against faculty, staff and students, including racial segregation of students, and requires school districts to take action to overcome barriers to students' equal participation. Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974 (EEOA)
The federal special education law which establishes requirements and offers funds for special services to all children and youth who qualify, from birth to twenty-one. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1990 (IDEA)
How did the 1997 Amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act restructure the law? -A number of changes in IEPs & participation of students with disabilities in state & district wide assessments are mandated -Significant provisions on mediation of disputes & discipline of students with disabilities are added.
______ targets institutions that receive federal financial assistance for any of its programs. These institutions are required not to exclude, deny benefits of, or discriminate against any qualified individual with a disability. Appropriate Education for Students with Special Needs Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
What are the requirements for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975? Students with disabilities have the right to a free, appropriate public education;Schools must have IEPs for each student;Parents can inspect school records; Students have a right to the LRE;Fair, nondiscriminatory assessments
In 1986 amendments to the Education for All Handicapped Children Act were made. What changed? Rights were extended to preschoolers with disabilities and each school district is required to conduct a multidisciplinary assessment and develop an individualized family service plan for each preschool child with a disability.
____________ provides comprehensive civil rights protection and is designed to remove barriers which prevent persons with disabilities from accessing the same educational and employment opportunities as persons without disabilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (1992)
_____________ says that Discrimination on the basis of disability is prohibited in employment, services rendered by state and local governments, places of public accommodation, transportation, and telecommunication services. Americans with Disabilities Act 1992
Which act funds Title 1? 2001 Elementary and Secondary Education Act (No Child Left Behind Act)
This act aims to maximize student learning, provide for teacher development, and enhance school system capacity. 2001 Elementary and Secondary Education Act (No Child Left Behind Act)
What does FERPA stand for? The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
___________ is a Federal law that protects the privacy of student education records. The law applies to all schools that receive funds under an applicable program of the U.S. Department of Education. FERPA
When is it ethical to break the code of confidentiality? only when there is clear and imminent danger to an individual or to society.
Created by: kfarmer10