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BIO201 - Ch 10 - Muscular System General - Marieb/Hoehn - Rio Salado - AZ

Muscles can only __; they never __ Pull - Push
As a msucle shortens, its __ moves toward its origin. Insertion
Name the 4 functional groups of muscle classification. Prime movers, antagonists, synergists, or fixators.
A muscle that provides major force for movement. Prime mover (agonist) - leader.
The biceps brachii muscle is a __ of elbow flexion. Prime mover - inserts on radius.
Muscles that oppose, or reverse, a partiuclar movement. Antagonists
When a prime mover is active, the antagonists is __. Often stretched & may be relaxed.
What contracts to provide resistance to prime mover? Antagonists - to prevent overshoot or to stop/slow the movement.
A prime mover & its antagonist are located on __ sides of the joint across which they act. Opposite
Fexion of forearm by biceps brachii muscle of arm is antagonized by the __. Triceps brachii
The tricep brachii is the prime mover for __ the forearm. Extending
Synergists assist prime movers how? (1) adding force to movement & (2) reducing undesireable movements - stabilizing a joint.
You can make a fist w/o bending wrist because? Synergistic muscles stabilize the wrist.
Muscles that help to maintain upright posture are? Fixators
Which type of muscles immobilize the scapula so only desired movements occur at shoulder joint? Fixator muscles that run from axial skeleton to scapula.
Skeletal muscles are named according to 7 criteria. Location, shape, size, fiber direction, # of origins, location of attachments, & action.
"Rectus" means? Straight
What factor results in muscles w/different shapes & capabilities? Arrangement of fascicles.
4 most common patterns of fascicle arrangement. Parallel, pennante, convergent, circular.
What is the fascicle pattern of sphincters? Circular
A fan-shaped muscle w/broad origin where fascicles taper into a single tendon of insertion is a __. Convergent muscle.
Strap-like muscles in which fascicles run parallel are said to be in __ arrangement. Parallel
Spindle-shaped parallel muscles are also called __. Fusiform muscles.
A "feather" shaped muscle w/short fascicles that attach obliquely to a central tendon is called a __. Pennate muscle pattern.
A pennat pattern in which fascicles insert only on 1 side. Unipennate
A pennate pattern w/fascicles insert of both sides. Bipennate
The extensor digitorum muscle of leg has __ pattern. Unipennate - only inserts on 1 side.
The fascicle pattern of rectus femoris of thigh is __. Bipennate - attaches on both sides.
A __ arrangement looks like many feathers situated side-by-side w/quills inserted into 1 tendon. Multipennate
The deltoid muscle has a __ fascicle arrangement. Multipennate - forms roundness of shoulder.
The arrangement of a muscle's __ determines its range of motion & power. Fascicles
Skeletal muscles shorten to about __% of thier resting length when they contract. 70%
Which fascicle arrangement shortens the most? Muscles w/parallel fascicle arrangment - not really powerful.
The greater the total # of muscle cells, the __ the power. Greater
Which fascicle arrangement is most powerful? Bipennante & multipennate muscles.
What are the "fulcrums" in our bones? Joints
What are the levers in our bodies? Bones
The "effort" our muscle contractions provides are applied __. At the muscle's insertion point on a bone.
A lever operating at a "mechanical advantage" is a __. Power lever=effort farther than load from fulcrum.
A lever operating at a "mechanical disadvantage" is a __. Speed lever=effort nearer than load to fulcrum.
First-class levers Load-Fulcrum-Effort -- Like a seesaw-fulcrum 1/2 way between-scissors
What class leverage occurs when lifting head off chest? First-class lever
The action of triceps muscle in extending forearm against resistance operates at mechanical __. Disadvantage
Second-Class lever Fulcrum-Load-Effort -- effort @ one end & fulcrum at other w/load between.
Secon-class leverage when standing on __. Tip toes
What arrangement is Load-Fulcrum-Effort? First-Class lever - like seesaw
What arrangement is Fulcrum-Load-Effort? Second-Class lever
Second-class levers in body work at mechanical __. Advantage
Second-class levers are levers of __. Strength, not speed or range of motion.
Which class of levers are strength levers? Second-Class = Fulcrum-Load-Effort.
Third-Class Levers Load-Effort-Fulcrum -- great speed - mechanical disadvantage - tweezers & forceps - most skeletal muscles.
Most skeletal muscles of the body act in __-class lever systems. Third
Which muscle is principle muscle of cheek? Buccinator - compresses cheek - holds food between teeth during chewing - I=Orbiculoris oris & N=Fac. Nerve
Which musc. well developed in nursing infants? Buccinator "Cheek"
Which musc. lowers mandible & tenses skin of neck for shaving? Platysma-flat & sheetlike- I=lower mandible & N=Fac. Nerve
Mastication "Chewing & biting" activites
Prime movers of jaw closure & biting. Masseter & temporalis
Which class of lever sysstem would biceps muscle of arm be as it lifts distal forearm? Third-class & allows rapid movement w/little shortening.
Muscles involved in 3rd-class levers tend to be __. Thicker & more powerful.
Load-Effort-Fulcrum is which class of lever? 3rd Class
There are over __ skeletal muscles. 600
Main muscle in the scalp. Epicranius
Created by: Ladystorm

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