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Clay's AP Euro Notes

AP European History Terms for the Midyear Exam

QuestionAnswer
Humanism The recovery and study of classical authors and writings
Individualism The emphasis on the unique and creative personally
New Monarch The term applied to Louis the XI of France, Henry the VII of England, and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who strengthened their monarchical authority often by Machiavellian means
Rationalism The application and use of reason in understanding and explaining events
Renaissance The period from 1400 to 1600 that witnessed a transformation of cultural and intellectual values from primarily Christian to classical or secular ones
Secularism The emphasis on the here-and-now rather than on the spiritual and otherworldly
Lorenzo Valla (1407-1457) A humanist who used historical criticism to discredit an eighth-century document giving the papacy jurisdiction over western lands
Virtu The striving for personal excellence
Baroque The sensuous and dynamic style of art of the counter reformation
Brethren of the Common Life Pious laypeople in the sixteenth-century Holland who initiated a religious revival of their model of christian living
John Calvin (1509-1564) A French theologian who established a theocracy in Geneva and is best known for his theory of predestination
Charles V (1519-1556) Hapsburg dynastic ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and of extensive territories in Spain and the Netherlands
Council of Trent The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the protestants
Index A list of books that Catholics were forbidden to read
Indulgence Papal pardon for remission of sins
Inquisition A religious committee of six Roman Cardinals that tried heretics and punished the guilty by imprisonment and execution
John Knox (1505-1572) Calvinist leader in sixteenth-century Scotland
Martin Luther (1483-1546) German Theologian who challenged the church's practice of selling indulgences, a challenge that ultimately led to the destruction of the unity of the Roman Catholic world
Sir Thomas More (1478-1535) Renaissance humanist and chancellor of England, executed by Henry VIII for his unwillingness to recognize publicly his king as Supreme Head of the church and clergy of England
Nepotism The practice of rewarding relatives with church positions
Peace of Augsburg (1555) Document in which Charles V recognized Lutheranism as a legal religion in the HRE The faith of the prince determined the religion of his subjects
Pluralism The holding of several benefices, or church offices
Simony The selling of church offices
Theocracy A community, such as Calvin's Geneva, in which the state is subordinate to the church
Usury The practice of lending money
Gustavus Adolphus (1594-1632)Swedish Lutheran who won victories for the German Protestants in the Thirty Years War and lost his life in one of the battles
Duke of Alva (1508-1582) Military leader sent by Philip II to pacify the Low Countris
Armada (1588)Spanish vessels defeated in the English channel by an English fleet, thus preventing Philip II's invasion of England
Vasco de Balboa First European to reach the Pacific Ocean, 1513
Catherine de Medici (1547-1589) The wife of Henry II (1547-1559)of France, who exercised political influence after the death of her husband and during the rule of her weak sons
Christopher Columbus First European to sail the West Indies, 1492
Fernando Cortez Conqueror of the Aztecs 1519-1521
Defenestration of Prague The hurling, by Protestants, of Catholic officials from a castle window in prague, setting off the Thirty Years' War
Bartholomew Diaz First European to reach the southern tip of Africa, 1487-1488
Dutch East India Company Government-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the east indies
Edict of Nantes (1598) The edict of Henry IV that granted Huguenots the rights of public worship and religious toleration in France
Elizabeth I (1558-1603) Protestant ruler of England who helped stabilize religious tensions by subordinating theological issues to political considerations
Prince Henry the Navigator Sponsor of voyages along the West African coasts, 1418
Henry IV (1589-1610) Formerly Henry of Navarre; ascended the French throne as a convert to Catholicism. Survived St. Bartholomew's Day, Signed Edict of Nantes, quoted as saying "Paris is worth a mass"
Huguenots French Calvinists
Ferdinand Magellan Circumnavigator of the globe, 1519-1522
Peace of Westphalia (1648)The treaty ending the Thirty Years' War in Germany; it allowed each prince-whether Lutheran, Catholic, or Calvinist-to choose the established creed of his territory
Philip II (1556-1598) Son and successor to Charles V, ruling Spain and the Low Countries
Francisco Pizarro Conqueror of Peru, 1532-1533
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre (August 24, 1572) Catholic attack on Calvinists on the marriage day of Margaret of Valois to Henry of Navarre(later Henry IV)
Prince William of Orange (1572-1584) Leader of the seveteen provinces of the Netherlands
Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) Minister to Louis XIII. His three point plan (1. break the power of the nobility, 2. Humble the House of Austria. 3. Control the Protestants) helped to send France on the road to absolute monarchy.
Absolutism The theory that the monarch is supreme and can exercise full and complete power unilaterally
Bill of Rights (1698) English document declaring that sovereignty resided with Parliament
Charles I (1625-1649) Stuart King who brought conflict with Parliament to a head and was subsequently executed
Charles II (1660-1685) Stuart king during the restoration, following Cromwell's Interregnum
Colbert (1619-1683) The financial minister under the French king Louis XIV who promoted mercantalist policies
Constitutionalism The theory that power should be shared between rulers and their subjects and the state governed according to laws
Oliver Cromwell (1559-1658) the principal leader and a gentry member of the Puritans in Parliament
Diggers and Levellers Radical groups in England in the 1650s who called for the abolition of private ownership and extension of the franchise
Divine Right Monarchy The belief that a monarch's power derives from God and represents Him on earth
Fredrick the Great (1740-1786) The Prussian ruler who expanded his territory by invading the duchy of Silesia and defeating Maria Theresa of Austria
Fredrick William (1640-1688) The "Great Elector" who built a strong Prussian army an infused military values into Prussian society
Glorious Revolution A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by is daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange
Fronde The last aristocratic revolt against a French monarch
Habeas Corpus The legal protection that prohibits the imprisonment of a subject without demonstrated cause
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Political theorist advocating absolute monarchy based on his concept of an anarchic state of nature
Interregnum The period of Cromwellian rule (1649-1659), between the Stuart dynastic rules of Charles I and Charles II
James I (1603-1625) Stuart monarch who ignored constitutional principles and asserted the divine right of kings
James II (1685-1688) Final Stuart ruler; he was forced to abdicate in favor of William and Mary, who agreed to the Bill of Rights, guaranteeing parliamentary supremacy
John Locke (1632-1704) Political theorist who defended the Glorious Revolution with the argument that all people are born with certain natural rights to life, liberty, and property
Louis XIV Also known as the "Sun King"; the ruler of France who established the supremacy of absolutism in seventeenth-century Europe
Maria Theresa (1740-1780) Archduchess of Austria, queen of Hungary, who lost the Hapsburg possession of Silesia to Fredrick the Great but was able to keep her other Austrian territories
Mercantilism Governmental policies by which the state regulates the economy, through taxes, tariffs, subsidies, and laws
New Model Army The disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English civil war
Peace of Utrecht (1713) the pact concluding the War of Spanish Succession forbidding the union of France with Spain, and conferring control of Gibraltar on England
Peter the Great (1682-1725) The Romanov czar who initiated the westernization of Russian society by traveling to the west and incorporating techniques of manufacturing as well as manners and dress
Petition of Right (1628) Parliamentary document that restricted the king's power. Most notably, it called for recognition of The Writ of Habeas Corpus and held that only Parliament could impose new taxes
Puritan Revolution A reference to the English civil war (1642-1646), waged to determine whether sovereignty would reside in the monarch or parliament
Puritans Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization
Restoration The return of the Stuart monarchy (1660) after the period of republican government under Cromwell - in fact, a military dictatorship
Test Act (1673) Law prohibiting Catholics and dissenters to hold political office
Versailles Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility
War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713) The last of Louis XIV's wars involving the issue of succession to the Spanish throne
William of Orange (1672-1702) Dutch prince and foe of Louis XIV who became king of England in 1689
Aristotelian-Ptolemaic cosmology the geocentric view of the universe that prevailed from the fourth century B.C. to the sixteenth centuries and accorded with church teachings and scriptures
Francis Bacon (1561-1626) inductive thinker who stressed experimentation in arriving at truth
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) Polish astronomer who posited a heliocentric universe in place of geocentric universe
Deism The belief that God has created the universe and set it in motion to operate like clockwork. God is literally in the wings watching the show go on as humans forge their own deestiny
Rene Descartes (1596-1650) Deductive thinker whose famous saying cogito, ergo sum(I think therefor I am) challenged the notion of truth as being derived from tradition and scriptures
Enlightenment The intellectual revolution of the eighteenth century in which the philosophes stressed reason, natural law, and progress in their criticism of prevailing social injustices
Galileo (1564-1642) Italian scientist who formulated terrestrial laws and the modern law of inertia; he also provided evidence for the Copernican hypothesis
Laissez-faire The economic concept of the Scottish philosophe Adam Smith(1723-1790). In opposition to mercantalism, Smith urged governments to keep hands off the operation of the economy.
Isaac Newton (1642-1727) English scientist who formulated the law of gravitation that posited a universe operating in accord with natural law
Philosophes Social critics of the eighteenth century who subjected social institutions and practices to the test of reason
Royal Society of London and French Academy of Sciences Organized bodies for scientific study
Tabula Rasa John Locke's concept of the mind as a blank sheet ultimately bombarded by sense impressions that,sided by human reasoning, formulate ideas
Cesare Beccaria Crime and Punishment
Denis Diderot Encyclopedia
David Hume An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding
John Locke Two Treatises on Government; Essay on Human Understanding
Montesuieu Spirit of the Laws
Jean-Jacques Rousseau The Social Contract; Emile
Adam Smith Wealth of Nations
Voltaire Candide
Mary Wollstonecraft A Vindication of the Rights of Women
Ancien Regime(Old Regime) France prior to the French revolution
Bastille The political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Partisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles
Cahier de doleances List of grievances that each Estate drew up in preparation for the summoning of the Estates-General in 1789
Code Napoleon The codification and condensation of laws assuring legal equality and uniformity in France
Committee of Public Safety The leader under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795
Concordat(1801) Napoleon's arrangement with Pope Pius VII to heal religious division in France with a united Catholic church under bishops appointed by the government
Continental System Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding importation of British goods in Europe
Coup d'etat Overthrow of those in power
Declaration of Pillnitz (1791) Austria and Prussia agreed to intervene in France to end the revolution with the unanimous agreement of the great powers
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (August 27, 1789) Document that embodied the liberal revolutionary ideas and general principles of the philosophes' writings
Directory (1795-1799) The five-man executive committee that ruled France in its own interests as a republic after Robespierre's execution and prior to Napoleon's coming to power
Estates General The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancien regime
Great Fear The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives
Jacobins The dominant group in the national convention in 1793 who replaced the Girondist. It was headed by Robespierre
Levee en Masse The creation under the Jacobins, of a citizen army with support from young and old, heralding the emergence of modern warfare
Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) Consul and later emperor of France (1799-1815), who established several of the reforms(Code Napoleon) of the French Revolution during his dictatorial rule
Night of August 4, 1789 Date of the declaration by liberal noblemen of the National Assembly at a secret meeting to abolish feudal regime in France
Parlement Law court staffed by nobles that could register or refuse to register a king's edict
Peninsular War (1808-1813) Napoleon's long drawn-out war with Spain
Robespierre (1758-1794) Jacobin leader during the Reign of Terror (1793-1794)
Sans Culottes A reference to Parisian workers who wore loose-fitting trousers rather than the tight fitting breeches worn by aristocratic men
Taille A direct tax from which most french nobles were exempt
Tennis Court Oath Declaration mainly by members of the Third Estate not to disband until they had drafted a constitution for France(June 20, 1789)
Treaty of Tilsit (1807) Agreement between Napoleon and Czar Alexander I in which Russian became an ally of France and Napoleon took over the lands of Prussia west of the Elbe as well as the Polish provinces
Created by: catgrandstaff