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HA Chapter 3

Tissues and Early Embryology

tissues groups of closely associated specialized cells that are similar in sturcture and that perform related/limited functions
primary tissue types epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous
epithelium singular, sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity & glandular secretions
functions of the epithelium protection, sensory reception, secretion, absorption, ion transport
cellularity (special characteristic)epithelia is composed of abundant densely-packed cells and very little extracellular material
specialized contacts (special characteristic) epithelial cell junctions
polarity (special characteristic) apical and basal regions exist and differ in structure and function
support (special characteristic) underlying connective tissues
apical surface exposed surface that faces the exterior of the body/internal space
basal lamina sheet of proteins that act as a filter and as a scaffolding on which regenerating epithelial cells grow
avascular epithilia do not contain blood vessels, so these cells must obtain nutrients by diffusion or absorption
support (special characteristic) avascular but innervated (supplied with nerves)
regeneration (special characteristic) due to high mitotic rates and the presence of mesenchymal (stem) cells, epithelia can regenerate
mesenchymal cells stem cells
apical surface features microvilli, stereocilia, cilia
microvilli increase surface area and may anchor sheets of mucus
sterocilia long microvilli that cannot move
cilia move fluid (mucus)
lateral surface features cell junctions (desmosomes, tight junction, gap junction)
basal surface features basal lamina & basement membrane
basement membrane formed by the basal lamina plus some underlying reticular fibers
neuroepithilium specialized sensory epithelium
gland cells epithelial cells that produce secretions
glandular epithelium most of all of the epithelial cells produce secretions
simple epithelia one layer of cells
stratified epithelia 2 or more layers of cells, superficial/apical layer is used to classify the epithelial layer
pseudostratified with cilia simple epithelium that contains both short and tall cells, classification used mainly in one type
squamous flattened cytoplasm and nucleus
cuboidal spherical nucleus
columnar oval/elongated nucleus, usually located basally
transitional epithelia stratified and stretches and changes shape due to the expansion of their cells' lumens
lumens open spaces
germinative continual division of stem cells close to the basal lamina
simple squamous epithelium (1) (thin, flat and irregular) most delicate and lines aveoli, forms endothelium of blood vessels and the mesothelium of the ventral body cavity
simple squamous epithelium (2) molecules rapidly diffuse through delicate and thin layer of flat cells of this epithelium
mesothelium lines the ventral body cavities (pleura, peritoneum, pericardium)
endothelium lines the heart and blood vessels
stratified squamous epithelium located where mechanical stresses are severe (skin, lining of mouth, throat, esophagus, rectum, anus, and vagina)
keratinized (protein) that forms the epidermis of the skin because it is tough and water resistant
non-keratinized forms the moist linings of the esophagus, mouth, and vagina
functions of the stratified squamous epithelium protecting underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion, pathogens, and chemical attack
simple cuboidal epithelium (hexagonal boxes) occurs in thyroid gland, kidney tubules and in ducts/secretory portions of small glands
function of simple cuboidal ep. limited protection, secretion, and absorption
stratified cuboidal epithelium (relatively rare) occurs in largest ducts of sweat glands, mammary glands, and salivary glands
functions of stratified cuboidal ep. protection mainly, also secretion and absorption
simple columnar epithelium hexagonal in cross section, (taller rather than wider) and absorbges, secretes, and does ion transport
non-ciliated simple columnar lines the stomach & intestines, gallbladder and excretory ducts of some glands
ciliated simple columnar lines small bronchi, uterine tubes and some regions of the uterus
stratified columnar epithelia rare existance in the body (male urethra, pharynx, anus & large ducts of some glands) - protection & secretion
pseudostratified columnar epithelium cells appear to be stratified because of a mixture of cells which have nuclei situated at varying distances from the surface
ciliated pseudostratified columnar lines the trachea, and most of upper respiratory tract
non ciliated pseudostratified columnar lines the sperm-carrying ducts and ducts of large glands
functions of the pseudostratified columnar secretion(mucus) and propulsion of mucus by ciliary action
transitional epithelium stratified ep. with special characteristics that allow it to stretch and permit distension/recoil (ureters, bladder, and urethra)
glands many epithelial cells make and secrete a product (aqueous fluid containing proteins)
endocrine glands ductless glands that release their secretions directly into the intersitital fluids, lymph, or blood
exocrine glands secrete product onto skin or into body cavities
serous glands produce a watery solution that usually contains enzymes
mucuous glands produce viscous, sticky mucus
mixed glands produce both types of excretions (serous and mucus)
unicellular glands (goblet cells) are individual secretory cells that occur in epithelia containing scattered gland cells
multicellular glands occur as aggregations of gland cells that produce exocrine/endocrine secretions
multicellular glands are classified by.. their ducts (simple/compound) and by the structure of their secretory unites (tubular, alveolar/acinar, tubuloalveolar)
tubular cells arranged in a tube (intestines)
alveolar or acinar blind pocket or chamber
tubuloalveolar combo of two previous arrangements
simple vs compound does not branch vs does branch repeatedly
modes of secretion apocrine, holocrine, merocrine(eccrine)
apocrine portion of secreting cell's cytoplasm is lost during secretions (milk)
holocrine entire cell disintegrates to secrete its substance (sebaceous gland)
merocrine (eccrine) cells secrete their substances by exocytosis (mucus and serous glands)
endocrine glands ductless and secrete product (hormones) directly into the bloodstream
connective tissues most diverse and abundant tissue
four classes of connective tissue connective tissue proper, cartilage, osseous (bone), blood
mesenchyme common embryonic origin
connective tissues have 3 basic components specialized cells, extracellular protein fibers, fluid ground substance
structure of connective tissues cells separated from one another by a large amount of extracellular matrix
exception to the structure... blood
connective tissue proper extracellular fibers, viscous(syrupy) ground substance, and two classes of cells (fixed and wandering)
fibroblast most abundant cell type in connective tissue proper
fibroblasts produce fibers and ground substance of the extracellular matrix
3 types of fibers in connective tissues collagen, reticular, elastic
collagen fibers resist tension
reticular fibers provide structural support
elastic fibers enable the recoil of stretched tissues
fixed cells mesenchymal(respond to local injury) fibroblast(make of all connective tissue fibers-stars/stellate) fibrocytes (stellate & maintain connective tissue fibers of CTP) macrophages (eat hurt cells/pathogens) adipocytes (fat cells) melanocytes (store melanin)
wandering cells macrophages (front line defense) mast (histamine and heparin stimulate local inflammation) lymphocytes (repair tissue damage) neutrophils/eosinophils (infection/injury)
ligaments connect one bone to another
loose connective tissue proper packing material (fill space, cushion, support)
loose areolar underlies almost all epithelia and surrounds capillaries. ground substance/collagen, reticular and elastic fibers in the matrix surround fibroblast cells, fat cells, and defense cells
loose areolar functions support/bind other tissues with its fibers, hold tissue fluid in jellylike ground subs, fight infection, store nutrients in fat cells
loose adipose similar to areolar but contains more fat cells
functions of adipose increased nutrient storage, insulates
white fat is abundant in... hypodermis
brown fat occurs in.. babies (generates heat)
loose reticular similar to areolar but only fibers in the matrix are reticular (bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen)
functions of reticular form networks of caverns that hold free blood cells
dense connective tissue proper contains exceptionally thick collagen fibers/resists tremendous pulling forces
dense irregular similar to areolar but collagen fibers are thicker and run in different directions, appearing wavy (resists strong tensions, occurs in the dermis/organ capsules)
dense regular all collagen fibers in the matrix run in the same direction, seperated by rows of fibroblasts, parallel to the direction of the pull (main component of ligaments, tendons, aponeuroses and fascia)
elastic similar to areolar but increased bundles of elastic fibers (arteries, bronchial tubes, certian ligaments)
bone (osseous) tissue hard, calcified matrix consists of inorganic calcium salts and collagen fibers - very well vascularized
osteoblasts secrete collagen fibers and ground substance of the matrix
osteocytes (mature) bone cells inhabit small pits or cavities called lacunae
blood atypical connective tissue bec of its structure, yet is is connective bec it originates from mesenchyme
RBC & WBC surrounded by non-living liquid matrix called blood plasma
cartilage avascular/not innervated, thin collagen, ground substance and increased tissue fluid
chondrocytes mature cartilage cells that reside in lacunae (cavities)
hyaline cartilage amorphous but firm matrix, collagen fibers predominate
elastic cart. more elastic fibers in matrix
fibrocartilage thick collagen fibers predominate
epithelial and connective tissues form covering and lining membranes epithelium plus an underlying layer of connective tissue, cover broad surfaces in the body, cutaneous membrane (dry and covers outer body), mucous membrane (moist, lines organs that open to exterior) serous membrane (slippery, lines closed cavities)
perichondrium fibrous layer (outer) and cellular layer (inner) sets cartilage apart
appositional growth repeated cycles of division for inner layer of perichondrium
periosteum assists in attachment of a bone to surrounding tissues and to associated tendons/ligaments (fibrous and cellular layers)
transudate fluid formed on the surfaces of a serous membrane
muscle tissue muscle cells containing myofilaments (actin and myosin), specialized to contract/make movement, extracellular matrix seperates muscle cells
skeletal muscle multinucleated cells w/ a cylindrical and striated (banded) apperance due to highly organiized arrangement of myofilaments
cardiace muscle branching cells look striated, one nucleus, presence of intercalated discs (special cellular junctions)
fascia layer of connective tissue that can be seen at gross dissection
smooth muscle no visible striatiopns, one centrally-located nucleus, spindle-shaped cell, usually functions in propelling substances through hollow organs
nervous tissue main component of nervous organs (brain, spinal cord and nerves)
neurons highly specialized never cells with extensions and processes that allow electrical impluse transmition
neuroglia supporting cells, non-conducting cells that nourish, insulate and protect the neurons
Created by: handrzej



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