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HA Ch. 2

The Cell

somatic cells soma = body (non sex-cells)
extracellular fluid watery medium that cells float in
plasmalemma (cell membrane) separates the cell contents from the extracellular fluid
cytoplasm cell contents (cytosol and organelles)
order of the cell cytoplasm (cytosol &organelles) and the plasmalemma
phospholipid bilayer two distinct layers. (plasmalemma)
cytoskeleton contains microfilaments and it incresaes the surface area of the cell so that more extracellular material can be absorbed
microvilli contains microtubules and controls the movement of materials over the cell
centrosome strengthand support, movement of cellular structures and materials
cilia essential for movement of chromosomes during cell division
ribosomes create protein
mitochondria turn food energy into ATP energy (95%) of ATP
nucleus controls metabolism, storage and processing of genetic info and control of protein synthesis
nuclear evelope double membrane surrounding the nucleus
nucleolus rRNA synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits
rough ER modification and packaging of newly synthesized proteins to be sent outside the cell
smooth ER lipid, steriod and carb synthesis; calcium ion storage
golgi apparatus storage, alteration, and packaging of secretory products and lysosomal enzymes
lysosome intracellular removal of damaged organelles or pathogens
peroxisomes catabolism of fatsand organic compounds; neutralization of toxic compounds generated in the process
peripheral proteins membrane protein; attached to inner or outer membrane surface
integral proteins membrane protein embedded IN the membrane (transmembrane)
channels let water molecules, ions, and small water-soluble compounds into/out of the cell
functions of the plasmalemma physical isolation, regulation of exchange with the environment, sensitivity, structural support
cholestoral stabilizes the membrane structure/maintain fluidity
permeability membrane's effectiveness as a barrier
freely permeable cross w/o difficulty
selectively permeable free passages of some material and restricted passage of others
diffusion net movement of material from an area where concentration is high to where it is low
concentration gradient difference between high and low concentrations
carrier proteins take in essential nutrients that are too large to or non lipid soluble
facilitated diffusion act of carrier proteins bringing in essential nutrients (no ATP is used)
receptor site molecule to be transported binds to this
active membrane processes require energy to move substances against the concentration gradient
cells actively transport... sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium
ion pumps move a specific cation or anion in one direction, either into or out of a cell
exchange pump carrier where one ion moves in one direction and another in another direction
pinocytosis cell drinking; deep grooves form in the plasmalemma and pinch off, nutrients enter the cytoplasm through diffusion or active transport from the enclosed fluid in the pinosomes.
phagocytosis solid objects are taken into the cell (cell eating) works with lysosomes
pseudopodia false foot of phagosome
phagocytosis is performed by... special immune system cells
receptor-mediated endocytosis produces coated vesicles that contain specific target molecule in high concentrations
ligands target substance for receptor-mediated endocytosis
inclusions insoluble materials in the cytosol
nonmembraneous organelles always in contact with the cytosol (cytoskeleton, microvilli, centrioles, cilia, flagella, ribosomes)
membraneous organelles seperated from the cytoplasm by a membrane (mitochondria, nucleus, ER, Golgi, lysosomes, peroxisomes)
myosin protein that composes microfilaments
neurofilaments intermediate filaments in neurons provide structural support within axons
thick filaments abundant in muscle cells and composed of myosin
microtubules hollow tubesin cells
tubulin protein that build microtubules
centriole direct movement of chromosomes during cell division
basal body cilia anchor to this
fixed ribosomes ribosomes attached to the Rough ER
cristae inside membrane of mitochondria
matrix fluid contents of the mitochondria
what lacks a mitochondria? red blood cells
perinuclear space area enclosed by the nuclear envelope
nuclear matrix network of fine filaments in the nucleoplasm
chromosomes contain DNA wrapped around histone proteins
how many pairs of chromosomes are in each nucleus? 23
cisternae water reservoir for the ER
autolysis active enzymes that destroy the proteins and organelles in a cell
cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) bind to eachother and to extracellular materials
intercellular cement proteoglycans that hold adjacent cell membranes together
cell junctions tight, communicating, and anchoring
tight (occluding) junction lipid portions of two plasmalemmae are tightly bound together by interlocking membrane proteins
communicating (gap/nexuses) junction two cells are held together by membrane proteins called connexons (epithelial cells)
anchoring junction mechanical linkage between two adjacent cells at their lateral basal surfaces (accomplished by CAMs
cell division cellular reproduction
mitosis division or somatic cells, accounts for the distribution of one copy of genetic material to each of the daughter cells
interphase normal functions of the cell, possibly preparing for division
G(0) phase performing all normal functions
G(1) phase produces enough organelles to make two functional cells
S phase replication of chromosomes, synthesis of DNA and associated histones
DNA polymerase bind to exposed nitrogenous bases during the S phase
ligases short nucleotide chains are held together by this
G(2) phase last-minute protein synthesis
steps of mitosis prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
prophase chromosomes coil together in a tight bundle, nuclear envelope disappears
chromatids two copies of each chromosomes
centromere chromatids connect here
spindle fibers extend between the centriole pairs
astral rays smaller microtubules that radiate into the surrounding cytoplasm
metaphase spindle fibers pass among the chromosomes as they align at the metaphase plate
anaphase chromatids seperate, daughter chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the cell
telophase nuclear membrane formsand nuclei enlarge as chromosomes gradually uncoil. chromosomes disappear and nucleoloi reappear
cytokinesis occurs in late anaphase to completely seperate daughter cells
cleavage furrow cytoplasm constriction along the metaphase plate
mitotic rate rates of cell division (longer life expectancy, the slower the mitotic rate
cell theory building blocks for plants and animals, cells are produced by the division of preexisting cells, cells are the smallest structural units that perform all vital functions
passive processes diffusion, osmosis, filtration, facilitated diffusion
factors affecting whether a substance can cross a plasmalemma size, concentration gradient and the solubility
functions of the microfilaments anchor cytoskeleton to integral proteins of the plasmalemma and to interact with other microfilaments or thick filaments to produce active movement of a portion of a cell
fluid mosaic model 1) thin layer of fluid surrounds the cell 2) outer layer is a selectively permeable phospholipid bilayer 3) bilayer has lipids and proteins mixed into it
Created by: handrzej



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