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Foods and Nutrition

studying for the semester exam!

What is the importance of wise food choices? They determine the quality and the length of life along with emotional, physical, and social wellness.
What is the definition of nutrition? The study of nutrients and how they are used by the body.
What is the definition of dehydration? The lack of adequate water in the body.
What are the two major types of food poisoning? E-coli - from raw or rare ground beef, and salmonella - raw/ undercooked foods, poultry, and raw eggs.
How do you safely thaw food? Frozen food thaws in the fridge. Foods can also be thawed in the microwave.
What should refrigerator and cooking temperatures be in order to kill and slow bacteria growth? Refridge temp where bacteria slowed = 32-40 degrees. Bacteria is destroyed in high cooking temperatures of 160-212 degrees. In the freezer there is no bacteria growth - the freezer is 0 - 32 degrees.
What are some food storage principles? Buy what you need, use older food first, whole-grain foods should be refrigerated, potatoes and onions should be kept in a cool dry place, use shallow, not deep, containers.
How do you use marinades safely? Discard them after using on meat.
How long can cooked foods remain at room temp? Less than 2 hours
1 t = __ t 1 stick of butter = __ T ___ oz = 1 cup ___ T = 1 cup 1 t = 3 t 1 stick of butter = 8 T 8 oz = 1 cup 16 T = 1 cup
What is sauteing? Browning or cooking foods in a skillet with a small amount of fat.
What is braising? Combining browning food (frying) with a long period of simmering to tenderize food. Usually for less tender cuts of meat.
What is simmering? When bubbles in the liquid rise gently and just begin to break the surface.
What is broiling? Cooking food under direct heat.
How should you lower the oven temperature for glass and dark metal pans? For glass, lower the oven temperature 25 degrees. For dark metal, 10 degrees.
What do dark pans do to food? Brown and bake food more quickly.
What makes microwaving a more healthy way to cook? Quicker, uses less water, and saves nutrients.
What are the three types of cookies? BAR (brownies), DROP (chocolate chip) and MOLDED (peanut butter).
What foods cook the best in the microwave? Foods with high moisture.
Where should one position foods in the microwave? Around the perimeter of the carousel.
What foods create hot spots? Fat, sugar, and salt
What is the importance of covering food in the microwave? Holds in steam and helps keep microwave clean.
What is the difference between quick breads and yeast breads? The leavening agent for quick breads is baking powder while the leavening agent for yeast bread is yeast.
What are the parts of the egg and the nutrients in both? The yolk = fat and cholesterol. The white = fat free.
What is the technique for making a pie crust? Roll it 1/8'' thick and 2 inches bigger than the pie pan itself.
What is a meringue? Egg white with no yolk prepared at room temperature.
What is homogenization? A process used to keep fat and liquid in milk from separating.
What is pasteurization? Heat treatment to kill bacteria.
What are the types of milk and how much fat are in each? Whole = 8gm. 2% = 5 gm. 1% = 2.5 gm. Skim = a trace.
What is the difference between sweetened and condensed milk? Sweetened milk is used for desserts while evaporated has no sugar.
What are the three main types of fat and what are some sources of both? Poly-saturated fat and mono-saturated. Saturated - bad! High in fat. Meats and dairy. Raises LDL. Poly - good! Soybean oil, corn oil. Lowers LDL. Mono - best! Olive oil, canola oil, raises HDL and lowers LDL.
What is the total amt of cholesterol one should have? Under 200gm
What is the total amt of LDL cholesterol one should have? Under 130gm
What is the total amt of HDL cholesterol one should have? 60 or higher gm
Why are trans fatty acids the most unhealthy fat and what process produces them? They are produced through hydrogenation. They raise LDL and lower HDL.
What is atherosclerosis? The hardening of arteries blocked by plaque. Can cause a heart attack or stroke.
What is osteoporosis? The thinning of bones.
What mineral is needed to produce red blood cells? Iron
What is the main function of carbs? Provide energy.
What are some sources of complex carbs? Whole grains, beans, pastas, potatoes.
What are some advantages to eating soy? It is a good source of protein and is low in bad fats.
How does one ripen bananas? Brown paper bag em' at room temp.
How does one cook vegetables and lose the lowest amt of nutrients possible? Cook them quickly, use little water and larger pieces.
What is enzymatic browning and how is it prevented? It is when cut fruits and vegetables turn brown with exposure to air. Dip in absorbic acid. (lemon juice or sugar water)
How does one prepare pasta? In a large amt of boiling water.
What does al dente mean? Firm to bite.
Give some examples of legumes. Soy beans, kidney beans, northern beans, lentils.
What are the parts of the grain? Bran, endosperm, and germ. Bran provides the fiber.
What are some cooking methods for less tender cuts of meat? Use moisture, braise, simmer and stew
What are the three grades of meat and what are some differences between them? Select = leanest, cheapest, not as tender. Choice = most common. Prime = most expensive, fattest, most tender.
What are cured meats and why should we eat them in moderation? They are meats that have been chemically processed. They are high in salt, fat, and nitrates and have been linked to cancer.
Poultry - dark meat vs. light meat. How does the fat compare? Dark meat = more fat.
What are the kinds of meat and which animals do they come from? Beef, veal, pork, lamb. Cow, calf, pig, sheep.
How are grilling and PHAs related and how can one avoid overcooking? Turn meat often to prevent charring. PHAs come from smoke and charring - they are related to cancer. Put sauce on the meat in the last 15 minutes of cooking so it doesn't burn.
What are the four fat-soluble vitamins and what are some examples of each? A, D, E, K. A = Deep yellow fruits and veggies. D = milk. E = vegetable oils, wheat germ, whole-grain cereal, green leafy vegetables. K = Green leafy vegetables, cabbage, cauliflower.
What are the water soluble vitamins? Vitamin B, C. Your body cannot store these and you must eat them everyday.
What are the three major minerals? Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium
What are the three electrolytes? Potassium, sodium, chloride
What are the trace minerals? Iron, copper, zinc, iodine, selenium
What are the two types of protein? Complete and incomplete. Animal sources and soy beans are complete, plant sources are incomplete.
What is the breakdown of carbs? Simple and Complex. Simple are natural and refined sugars. Complex are starches.
What is glycemic value? How quickly a single food is digested and enters your blood stream in the form of glucose.
What are the purposes of a casserole's ingredients? Binder = holds casserole together (eggs, cheese), Filler = extends casserole (rice, pasta)
How does stewing meat in a pressure cooker get it done faster? Cooks under pressure = higher temp, faster.
How do dark green salads compare to lighter green ones? Darker greens are much higher in nutrients.
What are some characteristics of a molded salad? Uses gelatin, is refrigerated, holds shape.
What is a diuretic? Something that causes the body to lose fluid - EX. caffeine and alcohol
Do plant foods have cholesterol? Do plant foods have bad fats? No. Yes - tropical oils are saturated.
Created by: 1332603061