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HA Ch. 1

Human Anatomy Introduction

QuestionAnswer
microscopic anatomoy cytology: cells & histology: tissues
organs combination of tissues
four basic tissue types connective, muscular, nervous, epithelial
gross anatomy (macroscopic) surface anatomy: general form (morphology) and superficial anatomical markings regional: all superficial and deep features and their spatial relationships systemic: each individual organ system (11)
developmental anatomy form changes occuring from conception to physical maturity. includes embryology
comparative anatomy different types of animals
clinical anatomy pathological changes during illness in cells/organs
surgical anatomy anatomical landmarks important for surgical procedures
radiographic anatomy x-rays, ultrasounds, etc. performed on intact bodies
cross-sectional anatomy CT and MRI
Molecular (Chemical) level atoms > molecules > macromolecules (chemicals)
Four elements that make up 99% of total number of atoms in the body hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen
cellular level cells with internal structures (organelles)
tissue level similiar cells with a common function join together
homeostasis vital state of affairs
integumentary system skin; protection and controls body temperature
cutaneous membrane integumentary system: epidermis/dermis: covers surface & protects deeper tissues / nourishes epidermis, provides strength & contains glands
hair follicles integumentary system: hairs, produce hair, innervation provides sensation, sebaceous glands secrete lipid coating that lubricates hair shaft and epidermis
sweat glands integumentary system: produce perspiration for evaporative cooling
nails integumentary system: protect and stiffen distal tips of digits
sensory receptors integumentary system: provide sensations of touch, pressure, temp & pain
subcutaneous layer integrumentary system: stores lipids & attaches skin to deeper structures
skeletal system (ppsf) provides support, protects tissues, stores minerals, forms blood cells
bones, cartilages & joints skeletal system: protects brain, spinal cord, sense organs and soft tissues of thoracic cavity & supports the body weight over the lower limbs.
bone marrow skeletal system: primary site of blood cell production; storage of energy reserves in fat cells
muscular system allows for locomotion, provides support, produces heat
skeletal muscles muscular system: provide skeletal movement, control entrances to digestive and respiratory tracts and exits of digestive and urinary tracts
axial muscles muscular system: support and position axial skeleton
appendicular muscles muscular system: support, move, and brace limbs
tendons & aponeuroses muscular system: harness forces of contraction to perform specific tasks
nervous system directs immediate responses to stimuli; usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems
central nervous system nervous system: control center, processes info; provides short term control over activities of other systems
brain nervous system: commplex integrative functions, controls both voluntary and involuntary activities
spinal cord nervous system: relay info to and from brain, performs less complex integrative functions, directs many simple involuntary activities
special senses nervous system: provide sensory input to the brain (sight, hearing, smell, taste and equilibrium)
peripheral nervous system nervous system: links the central nervous system with other systems and with sense organs
endocrine system directs long-term changes in activities of other organ systems
pineal gland endocrine: control timing of reproductions and set day/night rhythms
pituitary gland endocrine: controls endocrine glands, regulates growth and fluid balance
thyroid gland endocrine: controls tissue metabolic rate, regulates calcium levels
parathyroid glands endocrine: regulate calcium levels
thymus endocrine: controls maturation of lymphocytes
suprarenal glands endocrine: adjust water balance, tissue metabolisn, cardiovascular and respiratory activitiy
kidneys endocrine: control red blood cell production and elevate blood pressure
pancreas endocrine & digest: regulates blood glucose levels
gonads endocrine: testes support male sexual characteristics and reproduction & ovaries support female sexual characteristics and reproduction
cardiovascular system transports cells and dissolved materials, including nutrients, wastes and gases
heart cardio system: propels blood & maintains blood pressure
blood vessels cardio: distribute blood around the body
arteries cardio: carry blood from heart to capillaries
capillaries cardio: permit diffusion between blood and interstitial fluids (fluid between the cells of the body)
veins cardio: return blood from capillaries to heart
blood cardio: transports oxygen, co2, and blood cells; delivers nutrients and hormones, removes waste products, assists in temp. regulation and defense against disease
lymphoid system defends against infection and disease, returns tissue fluid to the bloodstream
lymphatic vessels lymp: carry lymph (water and proteins) and lymphocytes from peripheral tissues to veins of the cardio system
lymph nodes lymph: monitor composition of lymph; engulf pathogens, stimulate immune response
spleen lymph: monitors circulating blood, engulfs pathogens and recyles red blood cells, stimulates immunte response
thymus lymph: controls development and maintenance of one class of lymphocyctes (T cells)
respiratory system delivers air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood
nasal cavities & paranasal sinuses resp: filter, warm, humidify air, detect smells
pharynx resp & digestive: conducts air to larynx (chamber shared with the digestive tract)
larynx resp: protects opening to trachea and contains vocal cords
trachea resp: filters air, traps particles in mucus, cartilages keep airway open
bronchi resp: same function as trachea except through volume changes
lungs & alveoli resp: responsible for air movement during rib and diaphragm movement; include airways and alveoli (act as sites of gas exchange between air and blood)
digestive system processes food and absorbs nutrients
mouth digest: receptacle for food
salivary glands digest: buffers & lubrications; produce enzyms that begin digestion
esophagus digest: delivers food to stomach
stomach digest: secretes acids and enzymes
small intestine digest: secretes digestive enzymes, buffers, and hormones; absorbs nutrients
liver digest: secretes bile, regulates nutrient composition of blood
gallbladder digest: stores and concentrates bile for release into small intestine
large intestine digest: removes water from fecal material; stores wastes
urinary system eliminates excess water, salts, and waste products
kidneys urinary: form/concentrate urine, regulate blood pH and ion concentrations; perform endocrine functions
ureters urinary: conduct urine from kidneys to urinary bladder
urunary bladder urinary: stores urine for eventual elimination
urethra urinary: conducts urine to exterior
male reproductive system produces sex cells & hormones
testes repro: sperm and hormones
epididymis repro: sperm maturation
ductus deferens repro: sperm duct
seminal glands repro: secrete fluid that makes up much of the volume of semen
prostate gland repro: secretes fluid and enzymes
female reproductive system produces sex cells and hormones; supports embryonic development
ovaries repro: produce oocytes and hormones
uterine tubes repro: deliver oocyte or embryo to uterus (fertilization site)
uterus repro: site of embryonic development and exchange between maternal and embryonic bloodstreams
differentation cells becoming specialized to perform particular functions
metabolism all chemical operations under way in the body
catabolism complex molecules > simple
anabolism simple > complex molecules
cephalic head
cervical neck
thoracic chest
brachial upper limb closest to trunk (arm)
antebrachial forearm
carpal wrist
manual hand
abdominal abdomen
pelvic pelvis
pubic anterior pelvis
inguinal groin
lumbar lower back
gluteal butt
femoral thigh
patellar kneecap
crural leg (anterior)
sural calf
tarsal ankle
pedal foot
sole plantar region of foot
supine face up
prone face down
frons forehead
nasus nose
auris ear
bucca cheek
hallux toe
mentis chin
oris mouth
posterior/dorsal back side
anterior/ventral front side
cranial towards the head
caual away from the head (toward 'tail')
superior above
inferior below
medial toward the midline
lateral away from midline
proximal toward attached base (upper thigh)
distal away from attached base (foot)
superficial at/near/relatively close to the body surface
deep toward the interior of the body
transverse cut in half horizontally
sagittal symmetrical cut
frontal front and back differentation
body cavities internal chambers that suspend organs for protection
ventral body cavity coelom; organs of the respiratory, cardio, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems
diaphragm separates the ventral body cavity into a superior thoracic cavity and an inferior abdominopelvic cavity
viscera internal organs that project into the cavities
thoracic cavity lungs, heart, thymus, inferior esophagus, lymphoid systems, cardiovascular system and respiratory system
mediastinum seperates the thoracic cavity into left and right pleural cavities
pleural cavity contains lungs
pericardial cavity small cavity that surrounds the heart
pericardium serous membrane covering the heart
abdominal cavity contains spleen, liver, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and small intestine and most of the large intestine
pelvic cavity last part of the large intestine, urinary bladder and reproductive organs
thoracic cavity breaks down into... right pleural, mediastinum >pericardial cavity, left pleural
abdominopelvic cavity breaks down into... abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity
Created by: handrzej