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Psychology Exam

Psychology Scientific Study of behavior and mental processes
Clinical Psyhology Most common psychologist, helps people with disorders like depression or schizophrenia
Counseling psychologist uses interviews or tests to identify problems
School psychologist helps students who have problems that interfere with learning
educational psychologists Like a school psychologist but focuses on course planning
Developmental psychologist studies human growth
personality psychologist identifies characteristics or traits
Social psychologists concerned with social behavior
Wilhelm wundt founded the school of structuralism which is the study of basic elements of consciousness
Behaviorism John B Watson, study of observable behavior
BF Skinner Founded reinforcement, if rewarded for an action they're likely to perform that action again
Biological Perspective Emphasizes biology's influence on behavior
Evolutionary perspective focuses on evolution of behavior and mental processes
5 steps of scientific research Question, Hypothesis, Test, Analyze results, Draw Conclusion
Longitudinal Method Study one person for a long time
Cross Sectional Method Study people of different age groups at the same time
Naturalistic Method Observing in natural surroundings
Laboratory method observing in controlled environment
Placebo inert substance used to test effectiveness of another substance
Informed Consent Agree to participate after a general overview of the experiment
Deception Telling patient one thing then doing another
Ethics Standards for proper/ responsible behavior
Sensation Stimulation of sensory receptors and transmission of sensory information to the central nervous system
Perception Interpretation of sensory information
Vision Electromagnetic energy, rods/ conses i retina
Hearing Soundwaves, hair cells in inner ear
Smell Chemical Substances, receptor cells in nose
Absolute threshold Weakest amount of stimulus that can be felt
Signal Detection theory method off distinguishing sensory stimuli that takes into account not only their strengths but also setting, physical state, mood and attitudes
Unconscious Level Area where information is stored but is unavailable, it is hidden
Conscious level awareness of things inside and outside ourselves
Preconscious level info not immediately in awareness but can be recalled if necessary
circadian rythms biological clock
Stages of Sleep first and second stage is light sleep. third and forth is a heavy, deep sleep
REM Sleep Rapid eye Movement, stage where dreams are most vivid
Sleep Apnea Breathing interruptions during sleep
narcolepsy Randomly falling asleep
Addiction chemical dependency on a drug
Depressants drugs that slow the nervous system
Stumulants increase the activity of the nervous system
Hallucinogens Drugs that produce hallucinations
Stimulus Something that produces a reaction
Taste Aversions learned avoidance of a particular food
Spontaneous Recovery Displaying responses that were previously extinguished
Generalization Responding the same way to similar stimuli
Flooding Being exposed to harmless stimuli until fear responses are extinguished
Primary Reinforcer Food, water and adequate warmth
Secondary Reinforcer Must be learned, money, attenton, social approval
Encoding Translation o information into a form in which it can be stored
Retrieval Location of stored info and bringing it to conscious thought
Semantic Memory General Knowledge
Sensory Memory initial recording of info, lasts maybe a second
Short term memory Information that stays in memory for a few seconds after sensory information has vanished
Long term Memory Info recorded and lingers for a long time
Reflex Involuntary reaction and response
Infancy period from birth to two years old
Stranger anxiety infant's fear of strangers
separation anxiety infant's cry when their mothers are not present
Egocentrism inability of a child to understand another point of view
Authoritative combination of warmth and strictness with parents
authoritarian parent's belief in obedience for its own sake
Primary sex characteristics Characteristics that are directly involved in reproduction
cliques peer groups of 5 to 10 people who spend a great deal of time together
identity crisis a turning point in development when a person makes important decisions about their values and sets goals for themselves
Young adulthood spans tha ge of 20 to 40. The physical peak of a person's life
Midlife crisis A reassessment that occurs at about the midpoint of a person's life in which they try to feel younger and feel like they've lost their purpose in life
Empty Nest Depression that occurs in a parent when their kids leave home
Generativity Ability to create, produce, and originate throughout adulthood
Cellular Damage Theory of aging Suggests that cells malfunction as a result of damage, not heredity
Programmed theories Theory that people age as a result of a biological clock that moves forward at a predetermined pace
Created by: f3ldman
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