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Key Issue 1

Nazi Germany

What was the Nazi means for control? Propaganda and the SS Police network.
Hitler's answer to overcoming the weakness and ineffectiveness of parliamentary democracy is Totalitarianism and the Fuhrerprinzip
What could overcome religion and class divisions to create greater social capital and cohesion? Volksgemeinschaft
What defined Hitler's foreign policy? Lebensraum- the belief that the Aryan race (which the Germans exemplified) deserved greater living space to expand in continental Europe.
How could Hitler revive nationalism? Getting rid of the Treaty of Berlin in order to reunify and get back the lost territories
Which religious sect contributed to greater Nazi votes? The Protestants
More votes were to be found in which regions? North and East
Which class was more likely to vote for the Nazis? The Mittelstand
"More votes came from rural areas than industrial regions"- true or false? True
When Hitler became Chancellor in 1933 what threatened the security of his post? The fact that only 3 out of 12 were Nazi Cabinet members; there was no two-thirds majority in the Reichstag; Hindenburg could at any point call for his dismissal; the army could unseat him
What happened on 23rd February and what was the significance? The Reichstag Fire which was blamed on the KPD and they lost their credibility.
When was the "Decree for the Protection of the People and the State" issued? 28th February
What was the significance of this decree? It gave the Nazis legitimacy to arrest opponents and violence reached new heights.
On 5th March, what was the disappointing outcome which forced the Nazis to go into coalition? They only gained 43.9% of the votes.
When was socialism symbolically aligned to the traditional elites? 21st March- the Day of Potsdam
When was the Enabling Act passed? 23rd March
What did the Enabling Act do? End parliamentary procedure and led to a dictatorship.
Why was the SA seen as a threat to the army? They were left-wing working class and called for a second revolution. They were also bigger than the army and grew by 30% in 1931-33. Rohm also wanted to infiltrate the army and be the commander.
Why was the army powerful? They could unseat Hitler, they had skills which could ensure his success in his foreign policy and they had important contacts.
What pushed Hitler to side with the army to get rid of Rohm? The mounting tensions derived from the undisciplined actions of SA activism and the fact that Hindenburg's death was fast approaching
When did the Night of the Long Knives take place? June 30 1934
How many died on Night of the Long Knives? Approximately 2000
How did the Army help on the Night of the Long Knives? They gave the SS weapons
Why was the Night of the Long Knives significant? It saw Hitler advance significantly- he was unchallenged for the presidency and the army pledged their loyalty to him. The threat of a second revolution was removed and the SA was reduced to being a show piece whilst the SS grew more powerful
What did Nazi propaganda do? Censorship; promote Nazi ideals; advance the Nazi culture.
Why was propaganda effective? The Nazis had a broad appeal because they lacked a clear structure- this enabled them to tailor propaganda material effectively in different regions and to different classes
What did the Editor's Law do? The German News Bureau had published all news items which were effectively propaganda
What saw to the success of the Reich Radio Company? 70% of all households had the People's Receiver
Why was propaganda ineffective? It was hard to control all publishing houses because a third were independent and there was a decrease in newspaper sales
What did the Gestapo and Kripo do? Acquire forbidden material; deal with non-conformists and outlawed organisations
Which SS Police sect was responsible for inquiring intelligence to do what? SD to make reports on party popularity in the Church and the Reich.
Which SS Police sect was the armed sect? What did they do? Waffen SS. They dealt with the military.
Why was the police network ineffective? There remained opposition- the KPD and SPD
What features of society were coordinated? Army; Business; Education; Church
Why was the army effectively unscathed by Gleichschaltung? Hitler had promised to respect their customs and get rid of the SA and this underlines how much power they had. Moreover, as von Blomberg was in the Reich Defence Council it ensured the army's autonomy.
Why did Hitler want to co-ordinate business and industry? He believed that this would cement his power. All businessmen and industrialists were coordinated into the Reich Chamber of Commerce. But they enjoyed some independence if they paid into the Adolf Hitler fund.
What was easily coordinated and how? Education through the new Nazified syllabus and any independent thinkers were sent to the Reich Chamber of Culture.
Why was it difficult to coordinated the Catholics? Hitler had signed the Concordat
What did Hitler do to coordinated the Church? Instigate a German Faith movement which failed
What did Hitler do which pissed off the Christians? Confiscate Church funds and arrest pastors.
What political organisations/features of democracy were coordinated? Federal states, political parties, trade unions
How were federal states coordinated? Under the Weimar, Landers had their local governments dominated by the Nazis, but the process of centralization was only completed after 1934 when these regional parliaments were absorbed. Reich governors only executed decisions made by Hitler.
Why did Hitler coordinate political parties? He rejected democracy and did not want to compromise his power. So by 14th July, only the Nazis were classed as the legal party left in Germany.
How did Hitler coordinate the trade unions? Through duping the labour movement and on 2nd May their offices were serached and closed, funds were confiscated and leaders were sent to concentration camps. The trade unions were then absorbed by the DAF
Created by: akhan166