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Cianci - Pearson

1848: Year of Revolutions

What factors caused widespread revolution in Europe? Food shortages, a depression in the commercial and industrial economy, unemployment, overburdened systems of poor relief, and horrible city conditions
How did middle class liberals and the working class differ? The former wanted political change while the latter wanted social change. Also, the former sought nonviolent means to bring about change while the latter used violence.
Outside of France, what was the big motivator for revolution? Nationalism.
Why did these revolutions fail to create liberal or nation states? The established conservative order was stronger than expected and the liberal middle class could not pursue political change without social change.
February 22nd, 1848 Revolution in France begins (AGAIN) with Parisian workers protesting for reform and the ouster of minister Guizot. Days later, Louis Philippe abdicates from the throne.
The primarily conservative National Assembly that was elected on April 23, 1848, opposed what because they believed it to be socialistic? National workshops for the poor
June 24th, 1848 General Louis Cavaignac is ordered by the government to crush the workers of Paris who demanded social change.
Why did the French people elect Louis Napoleon Bonaparte as their president? After the corruption of the July Monarchy and the turmoil of the early months of the Second Republic, they turned to the name Bonaparte for stability and glory.
December 2nd, 1851 After the National Assembly refused to amend the constitution to allow presidential reelections, Louis Napoleon initiates a coup.
December 1852 Louis Napoleon becomes Emperor Napoelon III in a newly proclaimed empire.
How did the Women's Voice use the maternal role of women to urge reform? They stated that motherhood was so important to society, they ought to have better education, economic security, equal civil rights, property rights, and the rights to work and vote.
Like in 1793, what happened to French feminist movements? They were repressed and their efforts were frustrated.
Why was the Habsburg Empire so ripe for revolution? Its government rejected liberal institutions, it still had serfdom, and it had several nationalities within its borders.
Louis Kossuth A Maygar nationalist who urged an independent Hungary and a responsible ministry under the Habsburg dynasty. His speeches helped spark revolution in the Habsburg Empire.
What did the Habsburg government do to prevent a widespread serf revolt? It abolished serfdom.
What did the March Laws passed by the Hungarian diet do? It mandated equality of religion, jury trials, the election of the lower chamber of a diet, a relatively free press, and payment of taxes by the nobility.
What did the Maygars to plan to do with Hungary? How did this run into problems? They planned to become a partially independent state while the Habsburg emperor still ruled over them and expand into Eastern Europe, but the various nationalities there resisted this Maygarization.
September 1848 Count Joseph Jellachich, with the support of various nationalities against the Hungarians, invades Hungary on behalf of the Habsburg government.
Pan-Slavic Congress A congress composed of all Slavs in Hapsburg domains that sought to create an independent Slavic state from Poland to Ukraine.
March 18th, 1848 Italians in Milan, aided by Charles Albert of Piedmont, rise up against Habsburg rule. By July, they are crushed.
December 2nd, 1848 Emperor Ferdinand of Austria abdicated in favor of his younger nephew, Franz Joseph.
August 1849 The Hungarians try to revolt once more, but the Austrians, backed by 200,000 Russian troops, crush this revolt.
Who did Italians turn to for Italian unification after Austrians defeated Piedmont? The liberal Pope Pius XI
November 15th, 1848 A democratic radical assassinates Pelligrino Rossi, a minister for Pius IX.
After Pius IX appointed a radical ministry and fled to Naples, what did the ministry do the next year? They proclaimed the Roman Republic in February.
March 1849 Piedmont goes to war with Austria again but loses badly at the Battle of Novara, leaving the Roman Republic to defend itself alone.
Why did France intervene in the Roman Republic? They wanted to prevent a strong unified state on their southern border and look good domestically for protecting the pope.
After the Roman Republic was crushed, what did Pius IX do? He renounced his liberalism.
March 15, 1848 Protests break out in Berlin and Frederick William IV of Prussia concedes some reforms.
Why did the Prussian constituent assembly fail? It was radical and democratic, convincing the conservative king to ignore it and finally disband it in April of 1849.
In Frederick William IV's constitution, what system of voting did he establish? Three-class voting, which said people voted based on their ability to pay taxes, allowing the largest taxpayers (5% of the Prussian population) to elect a third of the Prussian government.
What did the Germans at the Frankfurt Parliament seek to accomplish? They wanted to reorganize the German Confederation and write a liberal constitution of a unified Germany.
The representatives debated whether to unify Germany based on the _________ solution (with Austria) or the ________ solution (without Austria). grossdeutch, klienedeutsch
Why did Frederick William IV refuse the offer to become king of a unified Germany? He believed that kings should rule based on God's will, not by the permission of a written constitution.
Created by: Cianci