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Anatomy Glossary

QuestionAnswer
abdomen body area between the diaphragm and pelvis
abduct to move away from the midline; opposite of adduct
adenology the study of the endocrine system
adventitia, Externa outer coat of tube-shaped structure such as blood vessels
alimentary canal relating to food or nutrition. relating to the digestive system from the back of the mouth to the rectum
alveolus literally a small cavity; alveoli of lungs are microscopic saclike dilations of terminal bronchioles
ampulla saclike dilation of a tube or duct
anastomoses connection between vessels; fore example, the Circle of Villis is an anastomosis of certain cerebral arteries
Anatomy the structure of an organism, morphology
angiology the study of the circulatory system
anterior nares external openings of the nostrils
anterior (ventral) before, in relation to time or space; in front of or in the front part of; ventral, hemal, as contrasted with dorsal, neural
aneurysm blood-filled saclike dilation of the wall of an artery
antrum cavity; for example, the antrum of highmore, the space in each maxillary bone, or the maillary sinus
aorta the main trunk of the systemic arterial system
apex pointed end of a conial structure
aponeurosis flat sheet of white fibrous tissue that serves as a muscle attachment, a tendon
appendicular skeleton relating to an appendix or apendage
arteries vessels carrying blood away from the heart
arterioles minute arteries with muscular walls and about 0.2 mm. in diameter; a terminal artery continuous withe capillary network.
articulation a joining or connecting together loosely so as to allow motion beetween parts
ascending colon the first part of the colon in the right side of the abdomen
atrium chamber or cavity;for example, atrium of each side of the heart
axial skeleton this includes 74 bones that form the upright acis of the body and 6 tiny middle ear bones
bilateral realting to, orhaving two sides
bronchiole small branch of a bronchus
bronchus one of the two branches of the trachea
brachial pertaining to the arm
buccal cavity the space between the lips and the gums and teeth; the vestibule of the oral cavity
calyx cup shaped division of the renal pelvis
capillary microscopic blood vessel; capillaries connect arterioles with venueles. Also, microscopic lymphatic vessles
carpal pertaining to the wrist
caudal pertaining to the tail of an animal. opposite of cephalic
cecum blind pouch; the pouch at the proximal end of the large intestine
celiac pertaining to thea bdomen
cervix neck; any necl-like structure
concha shell shaped structure. for example, bony projections in the nasal cavity
condyle a rounded projection; example, condyles of the femure
cortex outer part of an internal organ; for exapm;e, of the cerebrum and kidney
costal pertaining to the ribs
crest a ridge; example, the iliac crest; a less prominent ridge is called a line; example, ileopectineal line
cubital pertaining to the forearm
cutanieous pertaining to the skin
deferens carrying away
descending colon the section of the solon which turns downward at the splenic flexure and descends on the left side of the abdomen
distal toward the end of a structue; opposite of proximal
diverticulum outpocketing from a tubular organ such as the intestine
dorsal posterior, pertaining to the back. ; opposite of ventral
duodenum the first and shortes part of the small intestinge
epiphyses ends of a long bone
endocrine secreting in to the blood or tissue fluid rather than into a duct; opposite of exocrine
exocrine secreting into a duct
external pertaining to the outside
fascia sheet of connective tissue
fissure groove
foramen a hole, small opening; example, foramen magnum of the occipital bone
fossa a hollow or depression; example, mandibular fossa of the temporal bone that serves as the socket for the lower jawbone
fovea cavity or hollow
frontal eminences the two rounded prominences, one on each side of the trontal bone, located where the forehead turns backward to become the anterior portion of the crown of the head
frontal sinuses the hollows formed on eather siede of the separation of the two plates of the frontal bone beneath the superciliary ridge
fundus base of a hollow organ, for example, the part farthest from its outlet
gall bladder pear=shaped sac, containing bile, on the under surface of the liver
gastric pertaining to the stomack
genitalia reproductive organs
gland a secreting structure
glossal of the tongue
head a rounded projection beyone a narrow neckline portion; example, head of the femur
hepar or hepatic pertaining to the liver
hilus or hilum depresion where vessels enter an organ
hyoid shaped like the letter U; bone of this shape at the base of the tongue
ileum the third portion of the small intestine, about 12 feet in length
inferior lower
inguinal pertaining to the groin
integumetary relating to the cutis, derma, skin. It is composed of two strata, the epidermis and dermis and contains the seat glands, sebaceous glands, hair follicles, and touch corpuscles
internal relating to the inside
interstitial of or forming small spaces between things. Intercellular
joints the place of union, usually more or less moveable, between two ro more bones
jejunum the portion of the small intestine, about teight feet in lenght, between the duodenum and the ileu
labia lips
cacrimal pertaining to tears
larynx th organ of voice production, the upper part of the respiratory tract between the pharynx and the trachea
lacuna space or cavity; for example, lacunae in bone contain bone cells
lateral of or toward the side; opposite of medial
liver (hepatic system) the largest gland in the body; secretes bile an s is of great importance in protien and carb metabolism
lumen passageway or space within a tubular structure
lungs cone-shaped organs, large enought to fill the pleural protion of the thoracic cavity completely. The left lung is partially divided by fussures into two lobes, upper and lower, and the right lung into three lobes, superior, middle and inferior.
manubrium handle; upper part of the ternum
meatus a tube-shaped opening; example, the external auditory meatus
medial of or toward the middle; opposite of lateral
mediastinum middle sextiomn of the thorax, that is, between the two lungs
medulla latin for marrow; hence the inner protion of an organ in contrast to the outer protions or cortex
membrane sheet or thin layer
mesentery fold of peritoneum that attaches the intestine to the posterior abdominal wall
mesial situated in the middle, median
morphology the study of the shape and structure of living organisms
myology the study of the muscular system
nares nostrils
nasal septum the dividing wall between the two nasal cavities, formed posteriorly of bone
neurology the study of the nervous system
nuchal pertaining to the nape of the neck
occiput back of the head
olecranon elbow
olfactory pertaining to the sense of smell
ophthalmic pertaining to the eyes
orifice an opening
ossicles small bones; specifically one of the bones of the tympanum or drum of the ear
palate roof of the mouth
palpebrae yeylids
pancreas an elongated lobulated organ composed of both exocrine glandular tissue and endocrine glanular tissue. secretes digestive enzymes, insulin, and glucagon
parietal of the walls of an organ or cavity
parotid located near the ear
pectineal pertaining to the pubic bone
pectoral pertaining to the chest or breast
peripheral pertaining to an ouside suface
phalanges finger or toe
pharynx the throat; the upper expanded portion of the dige4stive tract between the esophagus belwo the mough and nasal cavities abouve and in front.
phrenic pertaining to the diaphhragm
plasma liquid part of the blood
poplitieal hegind the knee
posterior following after; hence located behind; opposite of anterior
process a projection or outgrowth
pronate to turn palm downward
prostate gland gland, partly muscular and partly glandular, which surrounds the geginning of the male urethra and secretes a milky fluid into the urethra at the same time of semen emission
protuberance an outgrowth, a swelling, a knob
proximal next or nearest
pyloric sphincter the aperture between the stomach and duodenum
ramus branch
renal pertaining to the kidney
respiratory system relating to those organs and tissues from the nostrils to the air sacs in the lungs involved with the intake of air
rugae wrinkles or folds
sagittal liken an arrow; longitudinal
salivary glands the three pairs of glands furnishing the salivea, the parotid, sublingual, and submaxillary
sclera from Greek for hard
sesamoid bones shaped like a sesame seed; an inconstant number of small, flat, round bones found in various tendons in which considerable pressure develops, of these, only the patellas are usually counted in the 206 ones of the body
sigmoid colon that protion of the large intestine that courses downwardbelow the iliac crest
sinus a cavity or sponge-like space ina bone; example, the frontal sinus
sphincter a muscle that priciaplly closes an aperture
spinous process or spine sharp projection
splanchnic vixceral
superior higher; opposite of inferior
supernate to turn the palm of the hand upward
supraorbital margin arched ridge just below the eyebrow
symphysis greek for growing together
systems organizations of varying numbers and kinds of organs so arranged that together they can perform complex functions for the body
tendon band or cord of fibrous connective tissue that attches a ,isc;e tp a bpme
thorax chest
tibia shin bone
transverse crosswise, lying across the long axis of the body or of a part
transverse colon the part of the colon that passes horizontally acrosss the abdomen, below the liver, stomach, and spleen, and is above the small intestine
trachea also knowns as the windpipe; a tube about 11cm long that extends from the larynx in the neck to the bronchi in the thoracic cavity
trochanter a very large projection
tubercle small, rounded projection
tuberosity large, rounded projection
tunica adventitia (externa) the outer, fivroelastic coat of a blood vessel or other bubular structuree
tunica intima (interna) the inner, serous coat of an artery
tunica media the middle, usually muscular, coat of an arterty or other tubular structure
tunics one of the outer layers of a part, especially of hallow organ or blood vessel
ureter the tubes leading from the kidney to the urinary bladder
urethra the tube leading from the urinary bladder to the external surface of the body
uvula latin for a little grape, projection hanging from the soft palate
valve structure that permist flow of a lfuid in one direction oley
vas vessel or duct
vastus wide, of great size
veins vessels carrying blood to the heart
ventral of or near the velly
vermiform appendix worm-shaped tissue which extends form the lower portion of the cecum,
vascular relating to or containing blood vessels
ventrical referring to the internal organs
xiphoid sword-shaped
zygoma yoke
Created by: Hocker