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APII Endocrine


hormone stimulates contraction of uterine walls oxytocin
hormone stimulates milk production prolactin
made by alpha cells of pancreas glucagon
Colloid is contained within ___ follicle thyroid
stimulates thyroid hormone release (TSH) thyroid-stimulating hormone
electrolyte balance in the body mineralocorticoids
____ and ____ secreted by adrenal medulla epinephrine, norepinephrine
thymosin involved in maturation of ____ T-lymphocytes
produces regulatory hormones hypothalamus
Retention of both water and sodium from the kidney occurs as result of production and release of ____ glucocorticoid
When glucose levels in the blood elevated, ____ is released. insulin
Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates production of ____. gametes (sperm and oocytes)
Glucocorticoids elevate ____ ____ levels during periods of stress. blood glucose
____ is a hormone that is an antagonistic to parathyroid hormone Calcitonin
Parathyroid hormone is released from the parathyroid gland when blood levels of ____ fall. calcium
The secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla is stimulated by ____ nerve innervention sympathetic
hormone released from the kidneys erythropoietin
Endocrine glands are organs that lack ____. ducts
____ glands secrete their molecular products (hormones) directly into the blood stream endocrine
informational molecules produced by endocrine glands are called ____ hormones
hormones can only affect ____ or ____ that have receptors for specific hormone cells (target cells) organs (target organs)
____ ____ - chains of amino acids; longer chains are called protein hormones peptide hormone
growth hormone is a ____ hormone peptide
hormone derived from cholesterol - ____ hormone steroid
small molecules of altered amino acids are ____ ____ biogenic amines
____ hormone is an example of a biogenic amine thyroid
self adjusting mechanism that regulates hormone secretion - ____ ____ feedback loop
in a _____ feedback loop, the stimulus starts the process and eventually either the hormone that is secreted or the product of its effects causes the process to slow down negative
Give an example of a negative feedback loop Insulin being secreted after eating a large meal
in a _____ feedback loop the stimulus accelerates the original process to ensure the pathway continues or activity speeds up positive
Give an example of a positive feedback loop baby suckling nipple
The three chemical classes of hormones are ____ hormones, ____ hormones and ____ ____ peptide, steroid, biogenic amines
The hypothalamus secretes releasing hormones (RH) and inhibiting hormones (IH) to control the function of the ____ ____ gland anterior pituitary
The pituitary gland lies inferior to the hypothalamus within the sella turcica of the ____ ____. It is connected to the hypothalamus by a thin stalk, the ____. sphenoid bone, infundibulum
Functional unit of the thyroid gland: ____ ____ thyroid follicle
the inner walls of the thyroid follicle are formed by ______ _____ that produce an iodinated glycoprotein called _____ (___) follicular cells, thyroglobulin (TGB)
The follicle cells and the internal storage area from TGB is collectively called the ____ ____. thyroid follicle
Describe the Thyroid Gland Negative Feedback Loop 1.Stimulus signals hypthms to release TRH 2. TRH stimulates ant pituitary to release TSH 3.TSH stimulates follicular cells to release TH in blood 4.TH stimulates target cells, raised metabolism, body temp 5.increased heat inhibits the release of TRH
The pituitary gland is located just below the ____, in the ____ ____ and resting on the ____ ____. hypothalamus, sella turcia, optic chiasm
Anterior or Posterior, target and effects: Adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) anterior, adrenal cortex, stimulates production of corticosteroid hormones
Anterior or Posterior, target and effects: Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) anterior, female-ovaries male-testes, stimulates growth of ovaries/sperm production
Anterior or Posterior, target and effects: Luteinizing hormone (LH) anterior, ovaries/testes, stimulates ovulation, estrogen/androgen synthesis in testes
Anterior or Posterior, target and effects: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) anterior, thyroid gland, stimulates thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion
Anterior or Posterior, target and effects: Prolactin (PRL) anterior, receptors on organs through out the body/mammary glands/interstitial cells in testes, stimulates milk production
Anterior or Posterior, target and effects: Growth hormone (GH) anterior, almost every cell in the body, stimulates growth at epiphyseal plate/increased growth and metabolism in target cells
Anterior or Posterior, target and effects: melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) anterior, melanocytes, stimulates synthesis of melanin and dispersion of melanin granules in epidermal cells
Anterior or Posterior, target and effects: Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) posterior, kidneys and smooth muscle in arteriole walls, stimulates re absorption of water from tubular fluid in kidneys and vasoconstriction in arterioles of body raising blood pressure
Anterior or Posterior, target and effects: oxytocin (OT) posterior, female-uterus and mammary glands male-smooth muscle of reproductive tract, stimulates smooth muscle contraction in uterine wall and stimulates milk ejection from mammary glands
How does the hypothalamus control hormone release from both ant and post pituitary? AP- releases hormones through bloodstream PP- nerve impulses
Colloid is a ____ rich fluid in the ____ gland in ____ cells. protein, thyroid, follicullar
How does the thyroid gland affect the body's metabolism? increases or decreases it
Large endocrine cells located between thyroid follicles are called ____ cells parafollicular
Parafollicullar cells secrete ____ due to elevated Ca calcitonin
Calcitonin stimulates ____ activity and inhibits ____ activity osteoblast, osteoclast
_____ _____ artery usually supplies all parathyroid glands. Inferior thryroid
The three chemical classes of hormones are: ____ hormones, ____ hormones and ____ ____ peptide, steroid, biogenic amines
In a negative feedback loop, the result of a process acts back at an earlier step in the process to ____ ____ or ____ ____ the process slow down, turn off
The hypothalamus secretes ____ hormones and ____ hormones to control the function of the ____ pituitary gland. releasing, inhibiting, anterior
The pituitary gland lies inferior to the hypothalamus within the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. It is connected to the hypothalamus by a thin stalk, the ____ infundibulum
Although GH affects activities in almost every cell in the body, its strongest effects are upon the growth and development of the ____ and ____ systems skeletal, muscular
ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce and secrete some ____ hormones corticosteroid
Gonadotropins (____ and ____) influence reproductive system activities by regulating hormone synthesis and secretion in both female and male gonads and the production and maturation of gametes in both sexes (FSH) follicle-stimulating hormone, (LH) lutenizing hormone
The hypothalamus directly influences the release of ____ hormones pituitary
Stimulation by the sympathetic division of the ANS causes ____ cells to secrete epinephrine chromaffin
The hormones produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas are ____, ____, ____ and pancreatic polypeptide glucagon, insulin, somatostatin
The pineal gland is located in the ____ region of the ____ posterior, epithalamus
Modified cardiac muscle cells in the wall of the right atrium secrete the hormone ____ atriopeptin
Chief cells produce ____ hormone. parathyroid
____ ____ respond to a specific hormone. target cells
The purpose of the negative feedback loop is to maintain ____. homeostasis
master gland of the endocrine system hypothalamus
the __________ is in the inferior region of the diencephalon just superior to the pituitary gland hypothalamus
The anterior pituitary gland releases what two types of regulatory hormones? releasing hormones, inhibiting hormones
What two hormones does the hypothalamus produce? oxytocin (OT) antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
the hypothalamus controls the ____ and ____ activities of the adrenal medulla stimulation, secretion
CRH - increases secretion of adrenocotitropic hormone (ACTH) corticotropin-releasing hormone
GNRH - increases secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) gonadotropin-releasing hormone
GHRH- increases secretion of growth hormone growth hormone-releasing hormone
PRF- increases secretion of prolactin prolactin-releasing factor
TRH- increases secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) thyrotropin-releasing hormone
GHIH- decreases secretion of growth hormone (GH) somastatin growth hormone-inhibiting hormone
PIH- decreases secretion of prolactin dopamine prolactin-inhibiting hormone
What types of hormones does the hypothalamus secrete to regulate the functioning of the anterior pituitary? CRH, GnRH, GHRH, PRH, TRH, somastatin, dopamine
Also known as hypophysis. ____ gland pituitary
the ____ ____ is inferior to the hypothalamus and housed within the sella tursica. It is connected to the hypothalamus by infundibulum pituitary gland
2 lobes of the pituitary gland are the ____ lobe and the ____ lobe. anterior, posterior
Also known as the adenohypophysis. ____ pituitary gland anterior
pars distalis, pars intermedia, pars tuberalis are the 3 regions of the ____ pituitary gland anterior
True or false: Hormones secreted by anterior pituitary gland are regulated by regulatory hormones secreted from the hypothalamus. true
what is the name of the blood vessel network that the regulatory hormones travel from the hypothalamus to the the anterior pituitary gland? hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system
what are the steps of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system? primary plexus receives the arterial blood from the sup hypophyseal artery, it's drained in to the hypophyseal portal vein. the hormones leave the bloodstream and enter the anterior pituitary. the ant pituitary veins carry the blood with hormone to heart
what are the seven major hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary? FSH - follicle stimulating hormone, LH - lutenizing hormone, ACTH - adrenocorticotropin, TSH - thyroid-stimulating hormone, PRL - prolactin, GH - growth hormone MSH - melanocyte stimulating hormone
regulates release of thyroid hormone on thyroid gland (TSH) thyroid-stimulating hormone
regulates mammary gland growth and breast milk production (PRL) prolactin
stimulates adrenal cortex which produces cortisol ACTH
stimulates cell growth of skeletal and muscular system, stimulates liver to produce somatomedian (insulin-like growth factor 1&2)to stimulate growth of epiphyseal plate (GH) growth hormone
two hormones that influence reproductive system activities: (FSH) follicle-stimulating hormone & (LH) lutenizing hormone
stimulates rate of melanin synthesis (MSH) melanocyte-stimulating hormone
____ cells secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), in response to decreased blood Ca levels. Chief
____ hormone stimulates osteoclasts, stimulates calcitriol synthesis, prevents Ca loss during formation of urine. parathyroid
Hormone target and effect: thyroid hormone most body cells, increases metabolism, growth and energy use
Hormone target and effect: calcitonin bones and kidney, reduces Ca level in body fluids, decreases bone reabsorption and increases Ca deposition in bone
Hormone target and effect: parathyroid hormone bone, small intestine and kidney, increases Ca in blood and small intestine and decreases Ca loss through the kidneys
What are the main effects of the PTH? Reabsorption of calcium
Paired glands anchored on the superior border of the two kidneys; also called suprarenal glands. ____ ____ adrenal glands
The adrenal glands are divided functionally into an outer adrenal ____ and an inner adrenal ____. cortex, medulla
The adrenal glands are the color yellow because of storage of ____ in cells. lipids
The ____ ____ synthesizes 25 different steroid hormones, or corticosteroids vital for survival and is stimulated by ACTH. adrenal cortex
The adrenal cortex has 3 distinct layers of cells (from superficial to deep): ____ ____, zona fasciculate, ____ ____. zona glomerulosa, zona reticularis
Zona ____ produces mineralocorticoids, the main one being aldosterone. glomerulosa
Causes water retention for survival and hypersecretion causes HTN. aldosterone
Mineralcorticoids are synthesized by the zone glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex and regulate ____ composition and concentration in body fluids. electrolyte
The adrenal gland hormone glucocorticoids, targets liver cells. It stimulates lipid and protein metabolism and regulates ____ ____ levels. blood glucose
Adrenal Gland Hormone target and effect: gonadocorticords sex organs, protein synthesis in sex organ cells
Adrenal Gland Hormone target and effect: epinephrine and norepinephrine various cells throughout the body, works with SNS to stimulate flight or fight response
____ ____ Forms the inner core of the adrenal gland, Consists of ____ cells, which are modified cells of the SNS and secrete norepinephrine and epinephrine. adrenal medulla, chromaffin
____ and ____ work with the sympathetic division of ANS, to prepare the body for fight or flight. They stay in bloodstream longer than just nerve impulses, affecting their target cells. norepinephrine, epinephrine
The primary function of aldosterone is to ____ water. retain
Which nervous system stimulates the secretion of epinephrine? sympathetic nervous system for flight or flight response
Elongated, spongy, nodular organ, located between duodenum and spleen, posterior to stomach pancreas
The pancreas is both an ____ (ducted gland) and ____ (ductless) gland AKA Heterocrine gland. exocrine, endocrine
About 98–99% of pancreatic cells are pancreatic ____ that produce alkaline pancreatic secretions into ducts, then to small intestine. acini
The remaining 1–2% of pancreatic cells is small clusters of endocrine cells called pancreatic islets or ____ ____ ____. islets of Langerhans
The hormones of the pancreatic islet cells closely regulate the level of ____ ____. blood glucose
____ cells secrete glucagon when blood glucose levels drop and stimulate breakdown of glycogen in liver and lypolisis. alpha
____ cells secrete insulin when glucose levels are elevated and also promote glycogen synthesis and fat storage. beta
The pancreatic hormone glucagon increases blood glucose levels, glycogen breakdown in cells, ____ breakdown in adipose cells. lipid
Insulin is a pancreatic hormone that does what to glucose levels in the body? decreases
____ is the hormone that slows release of insulin and glucagon to slow rate of absorption during digestion. It is a pancreatic hormone synthesized by ____ cells of the pancreas. Somatostatin, delta
Red blood cells' only source of energy is ____. glucose
The _____ gland is located in the posterior region of the epithalamus and decreases in size with age. pineal
Pinealocytes, secrete ____, which is involved in maintaining the 24-hour circadian cycle and sexual maturation. melatonin
A bi-lobed structure, located just superior to the heart and just deep to the sternum. ____ thymus
The thymus functions with the lymphatic system to regulate and maintain the body's _____. Produces thymopoietin and thymosins to stimulate and promote differentiation, growth and maturation of _______. immunity, T-lymphocytes
_____ is larger in infants and children than in adults and diminishes in size after puberty. thymus
The _____ secrete erythropoietin which stimulates _____ production and maturation. kidneys, erythrocyte
The ____ secretes atriopeptin which causes sodium and water loss from the kidneys. heart
What produces the two peptide hormones, ADH and OT? posterior pituitary
____ hormone increases water retention from kidney tubules Antidiuretic ADH
____ hormone produces vasoconstriction of blood vessesls (vasopressin) Antidiuretic ADH
____ stimulates contraction of uterine wall for labor and childbirth and in ejection of milk from mammary gland oxytocin OT
____ produces contraction of muscle in the prostate gland to release semen during sexual activity. oxytocin OT
neurons in the hypothalamus are called ____ cells because they secrete hormones neurosecretory
name the two parts of the posterior pituitary gland pars nervosa infundibular stalk (infundibulum)
The ___ pituitary releases hormone into the blood stream. posterior
explain how the hypothalamus controls hormone release from both the ant and post pituitary anterior -via vessels with releasing and stimulating hormone post - by oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
largest gland devoted to endocrine activity thyroid gland
The thyroid gland is inferior to the thyroid cartilage of the ____ and anterior to the ____. larynx, trachea
The butterfly shaped gland with two lobes connect by midline isthmus: ____ gland thyroid
name the the 2 vascularized arteries of thyroid superior and inferior thyroid arteries
ACTH, FSH, LH, TSH, PRL, GH, MSH are secreted by the ____ pituitary anterior
ADH, OT are stored in anterior or posterior pituitary? posterior pituitary
CRH, GnRH, GHRH,PRF, TRH are what types of hormones? releasing hormones
GHIH and PIH are what types of hormones? inhibiting hormones
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) is an anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates production of ____ hormones. corticosteroid
FSH follicle stimulating hormone is an anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates growth of ovarian follicles and stimulates ____ production in males. sperm
LH (lutenizing hormone) is an anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates ovulation, estrogen and progesterone in females and ____ synthesis in testes of males. androgen
TSH thyroid stimulating hormone also known as thyrotropin, is an anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates thyroid hormone synthesis and ____. secretion
The anterior pituitary produces (PRL) prolactin. It stimulates ____ production in females. milk
GH growth hormone is an anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates synthesis of ____ in the liver to stimulate growth at the ____ ____. somatomedin, epiphyseal plate
Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) is an anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates synthesis of melanin and dispersion of melanin granules in ____ cells. epidermal
posterior pituitary hormone target and effect: ADH antidiuretic hormone also known as vasopressin kidney, smooth muscle in arteriole walls, stimulates reabsorption of water from turular fluid in kidney; stimulates vasoconstriction in arterioles of by therefore raising blood pressure
OT oxytocin is produced by the posterior pituitary and in females it stimulates ___ ___ ___ in uterine wall and ___ ___ from mammary glands. In males it stimulates contraction of smooth muscle in the ___ ___. smooth muscle contraction, milk ejection, reproductive tract
What hormone pairs have antagonistic (opposite) effects? Calcitonin and parathyroid hormone
What are the 2 target cells for antidiuretic hormone? Kidney tubules and smooth muscle of arteriole walls
Which 2 hormones are collectively called the gonadotropins? Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
Which hormone is secreted by the pineal gland? melatonin
The hormone that increases the rate of glycogen breakdown and glucose release by the liver is glucagon
Which endocrine gland is paired? adrenal
Which hormone is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas? insulin
In response to high blood glucose, the pancreas releases insulin to enable glucose to enter body cells. When the blood glucose level returns to normal, insulin release stops. This is an example of regulation by negative feedback
The release of hormones from the adrenal medulla is stimulated by the ____ division of the ____ nervous system. sympathetic, autonomic
Which hormones are formed from chains of amino acids? peptides
The "master control center" of the endocrine system is the ____. hypothalamus
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are secreted by ____ cells. chromaffin
Which hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary is not a tropic hormone? melanocyte-stimulating hormone
The hormones secreted by the thymus gland are ___ and ___. thymopoietin, thymosins
Thyroid hormone synthesis involves secretion of a glycoprotein called ___ by the follicular cells. thyroglobulin
In addition to secreting hormones, the pancreas also produces ____ ____ pancreatic juice
Which zona of the adrenal cortex synthesizes glucocorticoids? Zona fasciculata
Oxytocin stimulates ___ of milk from the breasts. ejection
ADH antidiuretic hormone is also known as ____. vasopressin
Pancreas: alpha cells secrete ____, beta cells secrete ____ and delta cells secrete ____. glucagon, insulin, somatostatin
Created by: BrandiLynn